Bear Lodge, Wyoming  February 26, 2008



Bear Lodge, Wyoming, also known as Devil's Tower is an iconic image of the American west.  It is easily recognizable in an old western, when carved in mashed potatoes, or when serving as a landing strip for alien visitors in Close Encounters of the Third Kind.  President Theodore Roosevelt established Devils Tower National Monument on September 24, 1906. The spectacular rock formation is located west of  the Black Hills near Hulett and Sundance in Crook County, northeastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River.  It is a massive intrusive igneous monolith visible for miles.  The tower rises 867 feet from its base to the summit and  1,267 feet above the Belle Fourche River flowing through the eastern edge of the monument.  The tower itself is 1 mile in girth at its base.  The summit , 5,112 feet (1,558 m) above sea level.  is a slightly domed  plateau 200 feet by 400 feet in size, about the same as a football field and . 


It was given the name Devil's Tower by an expedition mapping the region in 1875. Led by Col.Richard Irving Dodge, it is believed his interpreter misinterpreted the name to mean Bad God's Tower, later shortened to Devils Tower. 

Native Americans have different names for the tower.  George L. San Miguel,  August 1994, writes: "A review of the ethnographic literature demonstrates that Devils Tower was a sacred area for several Plains Tribes, and that it has been encoded as an important landmark in tribal narratives."  According to the National Park Service, over twenty tribes have potential cultural affiliation with Devils Tower National Monument.  Tribes including the Arapaho, Crow, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Lakota, and Shoshone had cultural and geographical ties to the monolith before European and early American immigrants reached Wyoming. Their names for the monolith include: Aloft on a Rock (Kiowa), Bear's House (Cheyenne, Crow), Bear's Lair (Cheyenne, Crow), Bear's Lodge (Cheyenne, Lakota), Bear's Lodge Butte (Lakota), Bear's Tipi (Arapaho, Cheyenne), Tree Rock (Kiowa), and Grizzly Bear Lodge (Lakota).  I would like to see the name of the National Monument changed to  Bear Lodge in respect of the Native American nomenclature.


The surrounding landscape is formed of rocks derived from deposits laid down in a shallow sea during the Triassic time, 225 to 195 million years ago. This dark red sandstone and maroon siltstone, interbedded with shale, can be seen along the Belle Fourche River.  The red color is from oxidation of iron minerals within the bedrock.  It is interesting that there are several geologic periods, the Triassic being one of them,  characterized by red rocks, likely a reflection of environmental conditions at those times.  The Triassic is the earliest  period of the three in the Mesozoic Era - the age of the dinosaurs.    This red rock sequence is known as the Spearfish formation. Above the Spearfish formation is a thin band of white gypsum, called the Gypsum Spring formation. This layer of gypsum was deposited during the Jurassic time, 195 to 136 million years ago.



About 65 million years ago, during the Tertiary period, the Rocky Mountains and the Black Hills were uplifted. Molten magma rose through the crust, intruding into the already existing sedimentary rock layers.  In 1907, scientists Darton and O'Hara decided that Devils Tower must be an eroded remnant of a laccolith. A laccolith is a large mass of igneous rock which is intruded through sedimentary rock beds but does not actually reach the surface, producing a rounded bulge in the sedimentary layers above.  This  is by far the best explanation of the origin of the tower.  Others have suggested it is a volcanic plug formed in the neck of a volcano, but there is no evidence anywhere of lava or ash flows that would be associated with such a volcano.  The rock cooled close to the surface of the earth.  This is known because the grain size of the rock making up the monument is very fine.  The faster an igneous rock cools, the finer the mineral grain making up the rock.  The rock itself is a phonolite porphyry, a light to dark-gray or greenish-gray igneous rock with conspicuous crystals of white feldspar.  A porphyry is a rock with larger crystal embedded in a fine grain matrix.  It indicates the history of cooling of the rock.  First it cooled slowly for a time forming larger crystal, the feldspar, within the liquid magma. Then the magma was pushed upward toward the surface where the rest of the liquid cooled too rapidly to form large crystals.  This stage formed the gray to greenish gray fine grained matrix of the rock. As the lava cooled, hexagonal (and sometimes 4-, 5-, and 7-sided) columns formed.  As the columns continued to cool, vertical cracks developed as the columns shrank horizontally in volume.  This is a typical characteristic of surface and shallow intruded basalts.  Since the intrusion there have been two separate erosion events that removed the surrounding sedimentary rock and exposed the igneous monolith.  The first exposed the top portion of the tower and exposed it to erosion.  Then a later episode of erosion, exposed the rest of the tower as we see it today.  Looking at the monolith, it can be seen that the top section has been more severely eroded than the lower portions. 

Bear Lodge Report

I have been to Bear Lodge three times.  Some people are of the mentality that you stop the car, snap a photo, and you have seen the "sight."  I have found that at each visit there is something more to see.  At each trip you are at a different point in your life, with your perspective colored by experiences since your last visit.  There are things to see that you might have missed the first time, or the second, or the twenty-third.  My first trip was when I was in high school and had just completed a summer college field camp at the University of Wisconsin- Superior.    My parents picked me up there and we went on a whirlwind trip of many western parks, including Devil's Tower. My second was during my college career.  I went to a Summer Geologic Field Camp partially set in the Black Hills as part of the requirement to complete my Bachelor's degree.  My head as this time was filled with geological processes.  My last trip was in 2005.  I was already involved with the Eastern Native Tree Society, and  deeply involved with photography and video.  On this trip I saw more of the trees and vegetation that were just a background to the tower itself on my previous trips.  I rolled into Wyoming anticipating the first view of the tower off in the distance.  I had just left the Black Hills, in the midst of the Sturgis  Motorcycle rally that morning.    I had slept in my tiny car overnight at a camping place in the Black Hills National forest.  Massive lightning storms had flashed across the horizon all night with gusts of wind.  My tent had been leaking , and I didn't want to set up in the impending storm.  The motels and hotels for a hundred miles around were all full.  The one room I found, it seemed the price more approached buying the property, than sleeping for the night. 



At last the thumb of the tower could be seen of fin the distance, ever growing larger as I approached.  The sun was to the west by now and the face was in shadow, but still it called for photo stops along the road.    At last I arrived at the park.  There isn't much  development near the one entrance to the park.  There are a few gift shops, a restaurant, and gas station.  I showed my Park Pass at the gate and made my way to the campground.  The campground is set up on a flood plain meander of the Belle Fouche River.  There are a number of cottonwoods in the campground, but they do not appear to be very old, and most are in poor shape.  There was talk of removing them as they might present a hazard to campers from falling limbs.  I think this would be a mistake.  But this is only one of many that have been made in the past by managers at the park and surrounding areas.  



In this riparian corridor many old, dead cottonwoods line the Belle Fourche River near the entrance, and no young cottonwoods or willows are replacing older trees. Other native vegetation along the river corridor (called the riparian zone), is being replaced by non-native species.  This is a direct result of past river management.  First the river channel in this area was straightened to reduce flooding.  Then a dam was built upstream of this location, also for flood control.  Species like the cottonwood and other native riparian vegetation require the repeated flooding of the flood plain to distribute the seeds for young vegetations and to limit the growth of flood intolerant species.  To their credit , the NPS has un-straigtened the river, rerouting it to flow along its old course, but nothing has been done about the dam that still prevents natural flood cycles.  They are planting seedling of cottonwood and other species in the floodplain to try and reestablish the original species populations.

After spraying my newly dried tent with waterproofing, I headed out to see the tower itself.  A side road to the left just before reaching the tower parking lot itself leads to an open field with a spectacular view of the southwestern (?) face of the tower.  I snapped few shots, and headed tom the base of the tower itself.  The tower looks interesting from a distance, but close up there is a feeling of awe or weight as the massive bock of rock with near vertical sides towers above you.  The parking lot is full.   The monument receives about 400,000 visitors a year, with around 4,000 people climbing the tower.  That is another subject of controversy - the climbing.  The most recent management plan was developed by the park service, interested groups, and representatives of various Native American Nations concerning  various aspects of managing the tourist population and the climbing aspect in particular. 


The tower is the site of many sacred legends of many tribes in the region, and today still serves as a site for various religious and cultural practices.    Climbing the tower is at odds with some of these native cultural elements.  As a compromise, the Park Service has implemented a voluntary no climb period.  The NPS website  reads: "American Indians have regarded the Tower as a sacred site long before climbers found their way to the area. Recently, American Indian people have expressed concerns over recreational climbing at Devils Tower. Some perceive climbing on the Tower as a desecration to their sacred site. It appears to many American Indians that climbers and hikers do not respect their culture by the very act of climbing on or near the Tower.  A key element of the Climbing Management Plan is the June Voluntary Climbing Closure. The National Park Service has decided to advocate this closure in order to promote understanding and encourage respect for the culture of American Indian tribes who are closely affiliated with the Tower as a sacred site. June is a culturally significant time when many (not all) ceremonies traditionally occur. Although voluntary, this closure has been very successful - resulting in an 80% reduction in the number of climbers during June.   During June, the NPS asks climbers to voluntarily refrain from climbing on the Tower and hikers to voluntarily refrain from scrambling within the inside of the Tower Trail Loop. Please strongly consider the closure when planning a climbing trip to Devils Tower. Alternative climbing areas are located within 100 miles of Devils Tower National Monument. "  I would not oppose a mandatory closure of the tower to climbing for the month, instead of a voluntary closure.  It is clear however, especially given the events of the recent past in Arches national Park, Utah, that the park needs a formal management plan for climbing the tower.  ( A rock climber climbed Delicate Arch, not specifically forbidden by the regulations at Arches, and it appear there were tope marks left in the soft rock of this iconic arch.)  More about the sacred nature of the tower and the history of climbing of the rock.

These thoughts were playing on my mind as I walked to the base of the tower.  A must hike for everyone who visits the monument is the  Tower Trail.  "Tower Trail - 1.3 miles (2 km)  The Tower Trail is the easiest and most popular trail in the monument. You will enjoy close up views of the Tower, while walking through strikingly different environments. Expect close views of the boulder field, ponderosa pine forest, and the fringe of meadow habitats.  Interpretive exhibits along the way point out such natural processes as the formation of the Tower, erosion of the landscape, local wildlife, and the flora of the base. The Tower Trail is paved with benches provided at various points. The steepest part of the trail is the very beginning but soon levels into a rolling trail. Plan to take 45 minutes to 1 hour to complete this loop trail."   

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This trail loops tightly around the base of the tower, just outside the talus pile of columnar columns fallen from the tower.  Many of these are thicker than a person is tall.  A few paths lead up into the jumbled pile and allows you to explore among the fallen pieces. 


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Again the overwhelming feeling this close to the base of the tower is one of mass and weight towering above you.  As you walk around the tower, the paved path wends its way through the ponderosa pine forest.  Gaps in the trees reveal framed vistas of the tower beyond. 


One thing that has always fascinated me, mo so even than big trees, are the trees clinging to cracks or small ledges in cliffs and rocks.  Here there are a plethora of these pioneer warriors clinging to life on the sides of the tower.  Every place you look are more ponderosa pine specimens. 


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Some are straight and tall, others are small and gnarled.  It is a photographers dream, if that is your chosen subject. 


The ponderosa pine is another example of bad decisions made in the past.  The natural vegetation regime was maintained by a cycle of small fires every fifteen to twenty years.  However the ranchers in the area, and the early Forest and Park Service.  The fires were all suppressed and interrupted the natural balance in the system.  As a result there was a drastic drop in species diversity.  Those species requiring open areas and sunlight were lost, or limited.  Instead of a diverse natural system, there now exists a system with  one basic species - Ponderosa pine. Plants requiring sunlight and open space are seldom seen. If fires were to occur naturally, the overstory canopy would remain open, allowing plants that require sunlight to thrive.  This also has allowed a large amount of pine needles, sticks, and other incendiary materials to accumulate.  I believe they are removing some of this material now, as the accumulation has reached a point that if it caught on fire, it would also kill the ponderosa pines as well as any other species.    The NPS website reports, "Many non-native plant species have made their way into Devils Tower National Monument, competing with native plants, and, in many cases, out-competing them. Biologists have identified at least 56 exotic (non-native) plant species in Devils Tower. Three of these - Leafy Spurge, Houndstongue, and non-native species of Thistles - are being actively managed."

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Don't forget to watch for the small stuff as you visit the grandest.


After shooting many photos, I returned to the field where I had a good view of the western face of the monument.  I waited there and shot photos as the sun slowly set  behind me. 

There are evening programs given many nights at various parks and monuments.  I always attend these when I have a chance.  They provide an opportunity to hear what the local experts have to say about the area, and to learn about things to see and do that you may have missed.   

There are two other trails worth checking out in the monument:  "Joyner Ridge Trail - 1.5 miles (2.4 km) Joyner Ridge provides visitors with the full picture of different life zones of the area. Located away from the Tower in the northern section of the park, it takes hikers on a tour of the ridgetop forest, and provides fine views of the north and west faces of Devils Tower. "  and  "Red Beds Trail - 3 miles (4.5 km)The Red Beds Trail is the longest trail in the monument. In a counterclockwise direction, the trail leaves the Visitor Center and takes you through pine groves and meadows with good views of the valley floor and distant hills, winding down toward the Belle Fourche River."  Both are relatively short, mostly because the monument is so small at only 1347 acres.



After a good nights sleep I again roamed around the monument for awhile before heading out for the next stop on my adventure.  



At Devil's Tower is a Prairie Dog town, that is being impacted by people trampling over the area and feeding the Prairie dogs.  I got some nice photographs of deer while waiting for sunset.  The website reports :  "In the spring of 2004, visitors reported a black bear sighting every 2.5 days while mountain lion sightings averaged 1 every 3.6 days."  I manages to get some nice photos in the morning sun with it shining on the opposite side of the tower from the night before.



Belle Fouche River


Sacred Place

I am providing the information below as limited excerpts from an article on the NPS website on the cultural aspects of the tower to Native Americans.

How is Devils Tower A Sacred Site to American Indians?  By George L. San Miguel, August 1994

"A review of the ethnographic literature demonstrates that Devils Tower was a sacred area for several Plains Tribes, and that it has been encoded as an important landmark in tribal narratives."  According to the National Park Service, over twenty tribes have potential cultural affiliation with Devils Tower National Monument. 


The Cheyenne call Devils Tower "Bear's Lodge," "Bear's House," "Bear's Tipi," and "Bear Peak."  "A band of Cheyenne Indians went on one of its visits to 'Bear's Tipi' to worship the Great Spirit, as did many other tribes before the white man came. The Cheyenne braves took their families with them as they felt that would be safe, as Bear's Tipi was a holy place."   Devils Tower is where Sweet Medicine died and it is his final earthly resting place. Sweet Medicine is the great culture hero of the Cheyenne who brought the Four Sacred Arrows to the tribe. The Four Sacred Arrows' sanctuary was located within a secret cave on the south side of Bear's Lodge.  Sweet Medicine also founded the Cheyenne Warrior Societies, tribal government, special laws, and ceremonies. As Sweet Medicine lay dying in a hut by Bear's Lodge, he foretold a dark prophecy of the coming of the horse; the disappearance of the old ways and the buffalo, to be replaced by slick animals with split hoofs the people must learn to eat (cattle). He told of the coming of white men, strangers called Earth Men who could fly above the earth, take thunder from light, and dig up the earth and drain it until it was dead.

Lakota (Sioux)

The Lakota call Devils Tower "Bear Lodge," "Bear Lodge Butte," "Grizzly Bear's Lodge," "Penis Mountain," "Mythic-owl Mountain," "Grey Horn Butte," and "Ghost Mountain." The Lakota people have a sacred narrative or legend on the origin of Bear Lodge. The Lakota often had winter camps at Devils Tower. 2 This is documented at least as far back as around 1816. The Lakota claim to have an ancient and sacred relationship with the Black Hills of South Dakota and with Devils Tower and Inyan Kara in the Black Hills of Wyoming. The Black Hills are the Lakota's place of creation.  A Sioux legend tells of a Lakota band camped in the forest at the foot of Bear Lodge. They were attacked by a band of Crow. With the supernatural assistance of a huge bear, the Lakota were able to defeat the Crow.

At Devils Tower, they fasted, prayed, left offerings, worshipped the "Great Mystery" (the essence of Lakota spiritual and religious life), and performed sweatlodge ceremonies. Lakota pray for health, welfare, and personal direction.  The healing ceremony is known to have been performed at Bear Lodge, conducted by a healing shaman. The Great Bear Hu Nump imparted the sacred language and ceremonies of healing to Lakota shamans at Bear Lodge. In this way, Devils Tower is considered the birthplace of wisdom.

"White Bull told of 'honor men' among the people who went up close to Devils Tower for four-day periods, fasting and praying. There they slept on beds of sagebrush, taking no food or water during this time. Once, five great Sioux leaders-Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, Gall, and Spotted Tail-went there together to worship. We did not worship the butte, but worshipped our God."

Vision quests are a very intense form of prayer requiring much preparation, fasting, sweating (sweatlodge), and solitude 1. It is a ritual integral to the construction of Lakota identity. In addition to learning lore and moral teachings, individuals who seek visions, "often regain clarity of purpose in their lives and a secure identity as a member of their tribe." Men and women may seek a vision for a variety of reasons: to give thanks, to ask for spiritual guidance, or simply to pray in solitude. 3 One of Devils Tower National Monument's archeological sites, assessed by archeologist Bruce Jones in 1991, is a post-1930's shelter made of stone and wood which could have been used for vision quests.

The Lakota traditionally held their sacred Sun Dance at Devils Tower around the summer solstice. The Belle Fourche River was known to the Lakota as the Sun Dance River. Bear Lodge is considered a sacred place of renewal. The Sun Dance is a group ceremony of fasting and sacrifice that leads to the renewal of the individual and the group as a whole. The Sun Dance takes away the pain of the universe or damage to Nature. The participant suffers so that Nature stops suffering. The Sun Dance is "...the supreme rite of intensification for the society as a whole..." and "...a declaration of individual bravery and fortitude..." "Young men went through the Sun Dance annually to demonstrate their bravery as though they themselves had been captured and tortured, finally struggling to obtain their freedom."3 The tearing of the pierced flesh is symbolic of obtaining freedom and renewal. NPS records indicate that modern Sun Dance ceremonies have been held at Devils Tower since 1983.

The Lakota also received the White Buffalo Calf Pipe, the most sacred object of the Lakota people, at Bear Lodge by White Buffalo Calf Woman, a legendary spiritual being. The sacred pipe's sanctuary was located within a secret cave on the north side of Bear Lodge. 1 In 1875, General George A. Custer swore by the pipe that he would not fight Indians again. "He who swears by the pipe and breaks oaths, comes to destruction, and his whole family dies, or sickness comes upon them." Pipes often are held as sacred objects used in vision quests, Sun Dances, sweatlodge rites, and in making peace.


First Stories

In the 1930's, the importance of Devils Tower to many Plains Indians was recorded in first person narratives.  Devil's Tower First Stories:   This page provides a written copy of many of these narratives.



Climbing of the Tower

After returning home and looking at my images, I discovered that I had by chance taken a photo that showed a pair of climbers on the face of the rock.  Accounts of early climbs are presented on the park website:

The first climb was made July 4, 1893, when William Rogers a cowboy living near Devils Tower made the ascent. This ascent was made via a ladder which was constructed a short time prior to the climb. Rogers and his neighbor W. L. Ripley, had spent days constructing the ladder, carrying the small stakes up the Tower and pounding them in. Two-by-fours were nailed to the stakes, thus making a crude device which has ever since been called "the ladder."

The First Technical Climb

Devils Tower, until Monday, June 28, 1937, unclimbed save by use of rope and stake ladder, has been conquered. Fritz Wiessner, New York, Lawrence Coveney, New York and William P. House, Pittsburgh, Penn., all members of the American Alpine Club, New York City, made the ascent up the almost perpendicular columned laccolith in slightly less than five hours.

The party of climbers arrived at Monument headquarters in the late afternoon of the previous day and spent some time in a reconnaissance of the south side of the Tower and the completion of plans for the ascent. At 6:30 the following morning the climb began, after making their way up over 200 feet of rough talus to a point where the columns rise almost perpendicular. They reached the top 600 feet higher at 11:18, four hours and 48 minutes from the time they began the ascent; 30 minutes was spent exploring the top, collecting requested specimens of the flora as well as samples of the rock found at the summit, taking pictures, and noting in detail points of scientific interest. One hour and forty-two minutes were consumed in the descent which was terminated at 1:30, with a total round-trip time of exactly seven hours. Both ascent and descent were made via the same route on the south side of the Tower.

Current Climbs

Today the climbers are using a combination of free climbs and removable chocks and nuts that do not damage the rock as they climb.

This is an example of public art located at a Perkin's I stopped at for lunch after leaving Devil's Tower.

Edward Frank


Wonderful post!  The information on Native American lore is very

I need to get outta my area of North & South Carolina if I ever find
the money and the time. There are so much to see outside of here. I
see you did not get any photos of them spaceships! :-)

James Parton


What an Awesome sight Bear Lodge must be in person! To bad about
the Cottonwoods, while in Colorado Springs several years back, I saw
some large ones. They are so beautiful in fall foilage! Enjoyed the
Geology stuff, can you post more stuff like that? Geology is one
subject that has always fasinated me. Good photos!   

Larry Tucei


      Great post and thanks for the images. They are memorable for me. On the number of visits to the tower, I have you beat. I've visited Bear Lodge 5 times and would like to return for a 6th time. When in the presence of the Tower, I always feel myself drawn up into those magnificent hexagonal columns. The power of the Tower is not to be denied.
      On occasion, I find myself reflecting back to my walks around Bear Lodge. On four of my five visits, the amount of public visitation was significant - not a good thing. Only one of my visits rewarded me with thin numbers of visitors and that afforded me a real chance to commune with the Tower, to sense its influence, undistracted by the presence of others. On that visit, as I walked and gazed upward against an azure sky and drifting clouds, the experience was transcendental. The Tower tranfixes; draws one into it. The sheer size of the columns, their geometrically pleasing vertical upsweep, the old growth ponderosas on the lower slopes, and the beautiful vista toward the Belle Fourche all fit together in a klaidescope of shapes, colors, and textures, a feast for any discerning eye. Such was how it was on that day of light visitation.  
      However, when walking the trail around the tower in the presence of lots of people, invariably, I find myself mumbling and grumbling. The disassociation from nature that one observes along the trail is evidenced by visitors who seem to be present only to be entertained. They seem better suited for a trips to Disney World. Then there is the inevitable visitor who must jog the trail, oblivious to the Tower. They seem intent on demonstrating their physical fitness to the rest of us out-of-shape boobs. Nature's wonders are secondary to these physically focused visitors.
      A signifcant percentage of of visitors just don't quite know where to fit a natural feature like Bear Lodge into their busy world of social interacting. They use the trail around the Tower much as they would a trail through a city park designed primarily for exercise or for strolling and conversing with companions - human to human interaction. On each of the four clogged visitations, I noticed that there were people who would hardly looked at the Tower as they walked, as if finding the Tower fascinating would cause them to lose their preoccupation with themselves and their state of social mindedness. A few children showed minor interest in the Tower, but I suspect that most would rather have been inside with video games.    
      Well, enough of my complaining. Bear Lodge is awesome and your trip reports set the bar for all of us. Please keep them coming.
Bob  Leverett


Thank you.  When I visit a place like this, I don't really notice the other people that much.  I have a singular focus on photography and trying to capture the moment.  The other people are just annoyances that occasionally get in my way.  I don't know, but when I am concentrating on something I can tune the rest of the world out.  It once made me an exceptional pinball player, then I became an excellent dart player, now I focus on different things. 
I mentioned in the report that I had found after I returned that I had captured photos of climbers unintentionally in one of my photos.  Looking at the photos tonight  found a couple of more images of the group of climbers:
 Another group of climbers
Ed Frank



It's sad. But most people are quite oblivious and shallow. Concerned
more with themselves than the natural world around them. Maybe ENTS
collects a few of us loosely together to see the world as it should be
seen. In a natural way. We should fit in and be a part of nature. Not
dominate or be oblivious to it. How many of us can sit in the woods in
one place and just meditate and commune with nature?  One learns much
if he/she stops, looks and listens. For me it is a welcome escape from
the rest of my life.

James Parton

I'm reminded of duty I once was directed to perform when I was working for the Kenai Fjords Nat'l Park...I was told to perform quality control on two trail counters, one seismic, one infra-red...I hiked up the Exit Glacier Trail (used to by cross-country, now somewhat improved) to the trail counter site, set out my folding canoe chair at a location where I could observe, but not be observed.  Boring at first, absorbing thereafter...definitely meditative!
-Don Bertolette

     I envy Ed in being able to tune out the public, but for me throngs of tuned out,  noisy people in the vicinity of a beautiful natural setting is on par with major disruptions in religious services. A few kindred spirits in an area doesn't detract from the peace and tranquility and on occasion enhance the ambience of a favored spot, but once the crowd grows, I'm out of there.
Bob   Leverett


When my wife and I visited, the place was more heavily covered with brightly colored climbers.  I put my camera down and took no pictures, leaving it all to my memory, where I leave out the people...  I like it better that way.

Paul Jost