Tsuga Selected Bibliography


Abbott, H. G. 1962. Tree seed preferences of mice and voles in the Northeast J. Forest. 60(2): 97-9.

Abrams, M. D.; Orwig, D. A. 1996. A 300-year history of disturbance and canopy recruitment for co-occurring white pine and hemlock on the Allegheny Plateau, U.S.A J. Ecol. 84: 353-63.

Adams, M. S.; Loucks, O. L. 1971. Summer air temperatures as a factor affecting net photosynthesis and distribution of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. (Carriere)) in southwestern Wisconsin Amer. Midl. Naturalist 85: 1-10.

Akerson, J., and G. Hunt. 1998. HWA status at Shenandoah National Park. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Newsletter #3: 10-11. (USDA Forest Service).

Avery, G. S.; Creighton, H. B.; Hock, C. W. 1940. Annual rings in hemlocks and their relation to environmental factors Amer. J. Bot. 27: 825-31.

Baldwin, H. 1934. Further notes on the germination of hemlock seed J. Forest. 32: 99-100.

Battles, J.J., N. Cleavitt, T.J. Fahey, and R.A. Evans. 2000. Vegetation composition and structure in two hemlock stands threatened by hemlock woolly adelgid. In: Proceedings of a Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America, edited by K.A. McManus, K.S. Shields, and D.R. Souto. pp.55-61.

Beatty, S. W. 1984. Influence of microtopography and canopy species on spatial patterns of forest understory plants Ecology 65: 1406-19.

Bentz, S. E. 2002. Hybridization and self-compatibility in controlled pollinations of eastern North American and asian hemlock (Tsuga) species J. Arboric. 28: 200-205.

Benzinger, J. 1994. Hemlock decline and breeding birds. I. Hemlock ecology. Records of New Jersey Birds 20(1):1-12.

Bhiry, N.; Filion, L. 1996. Mid-holocene hemlock decline in eastern North America linked with phytophagus insect activity Quatern. Res. 45: 312-20.

Black, B. A.; Abrams, M. D. 2005. Disturbance history and climate response in an old-growth hemlock-white pine forest, central Pennsylvania J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132: 103-114.

Black, R. A.; Mack, R. N. 1976. Tsuga canadensis in Ohio: synecological and phytogeographical relationships Vegetatio 32: 11-9.

Boettcher, S. E.; Kalisz, P. J. 1990. Single-tree influence on soil properties in the mountains of eastern Kentucky Ecology 71: 1365-72.

Boettner, G.H., J.S. Elkinton, and C.J. Boettner. In press. Effects of a biological control introduction on three non-target native species of Saturniid moths. Conservation Biology.

Borgmann, K. L.; Waller, D. M.; Rooney, T. P. 1999. Does balsam fir (Abies balsamea) facilitate the recruitment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)? Amer. Midl. Naturalist 141: 391-397.

Bourdeau, P. F.; Laverick, M. L. 1958. Tolerance and photosynthetic adaptability to light intensity in white pine, red pine, hemlock, and ailanthus seedlings Forest Sci. 4: 196-207.

Britton, Nathaniel L. 1906. The Hemlock Grove on the banks of the Bronx River, and what it signifies: With a review of the history and literature of the hemlock tree Trans. Bronx Hist. Soc. 1: 5-15.

Brown, J. H.; Castaneda, C. A.; Hindle, R. J. 1982. Floristic dynamics of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) communities in Rhode Island Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 109: 385-91.

Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.

Burkle, L. A.; Logan, B. A. 2003. Seasonal acclimation of photosynthesis in eastern hemlock and partridgeberry in different light environments Northeastern Naturalist 10: 1-16.

Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.

Carey, J. H. 1993. Tsuga canadensis The Fire Effects Information System WWW site; USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory; Missoula, MT; Fischer,WC compiler. ()

Castaneda, C. A. 1976. Some aspects of the ecology of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) in Rhode Island M.S. Thesis.

Charney, J. D. 1980. Hemlock-hardwood community relationships in the Highlands of southeastern New York Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107: 249-57.

Cheah, C.C. 1998. Establishing Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid. Environmental Assessment prepared by the CT Agricultural Experiment Station, unp. report. 6p.

Cheah, C. A. S.-J.; McClure, M. S. 1996. Exotic natural enemies of Adelges tsugae and their prospect for biological control. In: Salom, S. M.; Tigner, T. C.; Reardon, R. C., eds. Proceedings of the first hemlock woolly adelgid review (Charlottesville, VA: October 12, 1995). USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Morgantown, WV: 103-112.

Clark, J.; Gibbs, R. D. 1957. Studies in tree physiology. IV. Further investigations of seasonal changes in moisture content of certain Canadian forest trees Canad. J. Bot. 35: 219-53.

Clepper, H. E. 1934. Hemlock, the state tree of Pennsylvania Dept. Forests and Waters Bull. No. 52, Harrisburg, PA.

Coffman, M. S. 1978. Eastern hemlock germination influenced by light, germination media, and moisture content Michigan Bot. 17: 99-103.

Cook, D. B. 1941. Five seasons' growth of conifers Ecology 22(3): 285-96.

Cook, E. R.; Jacoby, G. C. 1977. Tree-ring drought relationships in the Hudson Valley, New York Science 198(4315): 399-401. (Pinus, Quercus, & Tsuga used for dendrochronology)

Davidson, D. W.; Davis, R. M. 1964. Further observations on living stumps of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (hemlock) in northern New Jersey Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 233-4.

Davis, M. B.; Woods, K. D.; Webb, S. L.; Futyma, R. P. 1986. Dispersal versus climate: expansion of Fagus and Tsuga into the upper Great Lakes region Vegetatio 67: 93-103.

Doyle, J.; Kam, A. 1944. Pollination in Tsuga pattoniana and in species of Abies and Picea Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 24: 43-62.

Doyle, J.; O'Leary, M. 1935. Pollination in Tsuga, Cedrus, Pseudotsuga, and Larix Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 24: 43-62.

Evans, Richard A. 2000. Draft Environmental Assessment for the release and establishement of Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.. http://home.nps.gov/applications/nature/documents/ACFF5B.htm#top Accessed Nov 07, 2006.

Evans, R.A., E. Johnson, J. Shreiner, A. Ambler, J. Battles, N. Cleavitt, T. Fahey, J. Sciascia, and E. Pehek. 1996. Potential impacts of hemlock woolly adelgid ( Adelges tsugae) on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) ecosystems. In: S.M. Salom, T.C. Tigner, and R.C. Reardon, eds. Proceedings of the First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review, Charlottsville, VA, 1995. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team-Morgantown, WV. FHTET 96-10. pp. 42-57.

Ewers, F. W.; Zimmermann, M. H. 1984. The hydraulic architecture of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) Canad. J. Bot. 62: 940-6.

Fajvan, M. A.; Seymour, R. S. 1993. Canopy stratification, age structure, and development of multicohort stands of eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, and red spruce Canad. J. Forest Res. 23(9): 1799-809.

Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.

Farr, P. M.; Tyndall, R. W. 1992. Expansion of an eastern hemlock forest in Maryland Castanea 57: 190-5.

Farwell, O. A. 1914. The correct name for the hemlock spruce Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 41: 621-9.

Fischer, R.; Dengler, N. G. 1977. Mesophyll cell walls in hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Canad. J. Bot. 55(11): 1510-5.

Fitschen. 1929. Die Gattung Tsuga Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1929: 1-12.

Foster, D. R.; Zebryk, T. M. 1993. Long-term vegetation dynamics and disturbance history of a Tsuga-dominated forest in New England Ecology 74: 982-98.

Fowler, J. A. 1957. Hemlock on the coastal plain of Maryland Atlantic Naturalist 12: 232-4.

Friesner, R. C.; Potzger, J. E. 1932. Factors concerned in hemlock reproduction in Indiana Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 2: 133-49.

Frothingham, E. H. 1915. The eastern hemlock USDA Bull. 152.

Gager, S. 1907. The absence of undergrowth in the Hemlock Forest J. New York Bot. Gard. 8: 237-40.

Gambles, R. L. 1973. The leaf anatomy of Tsuga canadensis M.S. Thesis.

Gambles, R. L.; Dengler, N. G. 1974. The leaf anatomy of hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Canad. J. Bot. 52(5): 1049-56.

Goder, H. A. 1955. A phytosociological study of Tsuga canadensis near the termination of its range in Wisconsin Ph.D. Dissertation.

Godman, R.M. and K. Lancaster. 1990. Tsuga canadensis (L.). Carr., eastern hemlock. In: R.M. Burns and B. H. Honkala, eds. Silvics of North America, vol. 1, conifers. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 654. pp. 604-612.

Grant, D.; Hart, A. C. 1961. Effect of seedbed preparation on natural reproduction of spruce and hemlock under dense shade Northeast Forest Exp. Stn. Pap. 160.

Hanna, W. J.; Grant, C. L. 1962. Spectrochemical analysis of the foliage of certain trees and ornamentals for 23 elements Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 89: 293-302.

Hennessey, R.D. and M.S. McClure. 1995. Field release of a non-indigenous lady beetle, Pseudoscymnus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae). Environmental Assessment prepared by USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Riverdale, MD, unp. report. 6p.

Henry, J. D.; Swan, J. M. A. 1974. Reconstructing forest history from live and dead plant material - an approach to the study of forest succession in southwest New Hampshire Ecology 55: 772-83.

Hett, J. M.; Loucks, O. L. 1976. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock J. Ecol. 64: 1029-44.

Hett, J. M.; Loucks, O. L. 1968. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock J. Ecol. 64: 1029-44.

Hibbs, D. E. 1981. Leader growth and architecture of three North American hemlocks Canad. J. Bot. 59: 476-80.

Holmes, S. 1932. A bisporangiate cone of Tsuga canadensis Bot. Gaz. 93: 100-2.

Hotchkiss, A. T.; Van Stockum, R. R.; Van Osdol, B. 1976. New stations for Tsuga canadensis in southern Indiana Castanea 41: 338-42.

Hume, E. P. 1971. Hemlock: graceful conifer Morton Arbor. Quart. 7(4): 37-41.

Hupp, C. R. 1983. Seedling establishment on a landslide site Castanea 48: 89-98.

Jenkins, C. F. 1946. Hemlock- queen of the conifers Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 6: 49-60.

Jenkins, J. C, Canham, C. D., Barten, P. K.   Predicting long-term forest development following hemlock mortality.  Proc.:  Symposium of Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America, GTR-NE-267. pp. 62-75.

Jenkins, J. C.; Aber, J. D.; Canham, C. D. 1999. Hemlock woolly adelgid impacts on community structure and N cycling rates in eastern hemlock forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 29: 630-645.  http://www.ecostudies.org/reprints/Jenkins_et_al_1999_Can_J_For_Res_29_630-645.pdf 

Johnson, K.D., F.P. Hain, K.S. Johnson, and F. Hastings. 2000. Hemlock resources at risk in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. In: Proceedings of a Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America, edited by K.A. McManus, K.S. Shields, and D.R. Souto. pp.111-112.

Kavanagh, K.; Kellman, M. 1986. Performance of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. at the center and northern edge of its range: a comparison J. Biogeogr. 13: 145-57.

Kelty, M. J. 1986. Development patterns in two hemlock-hardwood stands in southern New England. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 16: 885-891.

Kennedy, G.; Bergeron, S. 1991. Tree rings as monitors of heavy metal air pollution histories Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 151: 337-344.

Kessell, S. R. 1979. Adaptation and dimorphism in eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr Amer. Naturalist 113(3): 333-50.

Kobe, R. K.; Pacala, S. W.; J. A. S. Jr.; Canham, C. D. 1995.  Juvenile tree survivorship as a component of shade tolerance. Ecological Applications. 5: 517-532.

Krasny, M. E.; Whitmore, M.C. 1992. Gradual and sudden forest canopy gaps in Allegheny northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 22: 139-143.

Lapin, B. 1994. The impact of hemlock woolly adelgid on resources in the lower Connecticut river valley. USDA Forest Service Report, Hamden, CT. 43p.

Lei, T. T. 2002. Effects of Rhododendron maximum thickets on tree seed dispersal, seedling morphology, and survivorship Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 991-1000.

Li, L. C. 1988. The comparative karyotypic studies in some species of Tsuga (Pinaceae) Guihaia 8(4): 324-8. (In Chinese; English summary)

Logan, K. T. 1973. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by light intensity V. White ash, beech, eastern hemlock, and general conclusions Canadian For. Serv. Publ. No. 1323. 12 pp.

Long, Z. T.; Carson, W. P.; Peterson, C. J. 1998. Can disturbance create refugia from herbivores: an example with hemlock regeneration on treefall mounds J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 165-8.

Manning, W. J. 1971. Effects of limestone dust on leaf condition, foliar disease incidence, and leaf surface microflora of native plants Environmental Pollution 2: 69-76.

Marks, P. L.; Gardescu, S.; Hitzhusen, G. E. 1999. Windstorm damage and age structure in an old growth forest in central New York Northeastern Naturalist 6: 165-176.

Marshall, R. 1927. The growth of hemlock before and after release from suppression Harvard Forest Bull. No. 11.

Mayer, M., R. Chianese, L. Conway, and D. Palmer. 1998. Release of Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae) in New Jersey. Annual Report. New Jersey Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, Phillip Alampi Beneficial Insect Laboratory, Trenton, N.J. 4pp.

McClure, M.S. 1991a. Density-dependent feedback and population cycles in Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on Tsuga canadensis. Environmental Entomology (20) 1: 258-264.

McClure M.S. 1991b. Nitrogen fertilization of hemlock increases susceptibility to hemlock woolly adelgid. J. Arboriculture 17: 227-230.

McClure, M. S. 1990. Role of wind, birds, deer, and humans in the dispersal of hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: adelgidae). Environmental Entomology. 19: 36-43.

McClure, M.S. 1987. Biology and control of hemlock woolly adelgid. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 851, pp. 3-9.

McClure, M.S. and C.A. S-J Cheah. 1999. Reshaping the ecology of invading populations of hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in eastern North America. Biological Invasions 1: 247-254.

McClure, M.S., C.A. S.-J. Cheah, and T.C. Tigner. 2000. Is Pseudoscymnus tsugae the solution to the hemlock woolly adelgid problem? An early perspective. In: Proceedings of a Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America, edited by K.A. McManus, K.S. Shields, and D.R. Souto. pp.89-96.

McManus, K. A.; Shields, K. S.; Souto, D. R. 2000. Proceedings: Symposium on sustainable management of hemlock ecosystems in eastern North America General Technical Report NE-267. USDA Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA. 237 pages. (June 22-24, 1999, Durham, New Hampshire)

Merkle, M.; Napp-Zinn, K. 1977. Anatomische Untersuchungen an Pinaceen-Deckschuppen Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 98: 549-72. (In German, English summary)

Merrill, P. H.; Hawley, R. C. 1924. Hemlock: its place in the sylviculture of the southern New England forest Bull. Yale Univ. School Forest. 12

Miles, M. C.; Smith, E. C. 1960. A study of the origin of hemlock forests in southwestern Nova Scotia Forest. Chron. 36: 375-92.

Millet, J. 1998. Plagiotropic architectural development of four tree species of the temperate forest Canad. J. Bot. 76: 2100-2118.

Millington, W. 1989. Hemlock woolly adelgid infestations discovered. Fall Newsletter of the Research and Resource Planning Division of Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

Mladenoff, D. J.; Stearns, F. 1993. Eastern hemlock regeneration and deer browsing in the northern Great Lakes region: a re-examination and model simulation Conserv. Biol. 7: 889-900.

Mladenoff, D.J. 1996. The role of eastern hemlock across scales in the northern Lake States, in Proceedings of the Hemlock Ecology and Management Conference, September 27-28, Iron Mountain Michigan. G. Mroz and J. Martin, editors.

Montgomery, M. E. 1999. Biological controls for the hemlock woolly adelgid In: Proceedings, USDA interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 1999. USDA, Forest Service, Radnor, PA. (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-266)

Montgomery, M.E. 1999. Woolly adelgids in the southern Appalachians: why they are harmful and prospects for control. In: Gibson, P. and C. Parker, eds. Proceedings of the Appalachian Biological Control Initiative Workshop. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Morgantown, WV. FHTET-98-14. 59p.

Montgomery, M. E. 1997. Hemlock wooly adelgid: history, biology, and control In: Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research forum 1996; 1996 January. USDA, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Exp. Sta., Radnor, PA. 56. Abstract pages.

Montgomery, M. E., S. M. Lyons. 1996. Natural enemies of adelgids in North America: their prospect for biological control of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae). In: Proceedings of the First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review, Charlottsville, VA, 1995. S.M. Salom, T.C. Tigner, and R.C. Reardon, eds. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team-Morgantown, WV. FHTET 96-10. pp. 42-57.

Murray, E. 1984. Notae spermatophytae no. 4: unum minutum monographum generis Tsuga Kalmia 14: 17-9.

Murrill, W. A. 1900. The development of the archegonium and fertilization in the hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis Carr.) Ann. Bot. 14: 583-607.

Nienstaedt, H.; Olson, J. S. 1961. Effects of photoperiod and source on seedling growth of eastern hemlock Forest Sci. 7: 81-96.

Niklas, K. J.; U., K. T. P. 1983. Conifer ovulate cone morphology: implications on pollen impaction patterns Amer. J. Bot. 70(4): 568-77.

Nilsen, E. T. 1999. Inhibition of seedling survival under Rhododendron maximum (Ericaceae): could allelopathy be a cause? Amer. J. Bot. 86: 11.

Northeastern Center for Forest Health Research. 1996. Hemlock WWW site, USDA, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Hamden, CT. ()

Norwacki, G. J.; Abrams, M. D. 1994. Forest composition, structure, and disturbance history of the Alan Seeger Natural Area, Huntington County, Pennsylvania Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121(3): 277-91.

Olson, J. S.; Stearns, F. W.; Niensteadt, H. 1959. Eastern hemlock seeds and seedlings response to photoperiod and temperature. Bulletin 620 Connecticut Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 620. (New Haven, CT)

Olson, J.; Nienstaedt, H. 1953. Hemlock in Connecticut. [CT Agric. Exp. Sta.] Frontiers Pl. Sci. 6(1)

Olson, J.; Nienstaedt, H. 1957. Photoperiod and chilling control growth of hemlock Science 125: 492-4.

Orwig, D. A.; Foster, D. R. 1998. Ecosystem response to an imported pathogen: the hemlock woolly adelgid Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 58: 41-44.

Orwig, D. A.; Foster, D. R. 1998. Forest response to the introduced hemlock woolly adelgid in southern New England, USA J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 60-73.

Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.

Parker, J. 1961. Seasonal changes in cold resistance of some northeastern woody evergreens J. Forest. 59(2): 108-11.

Parker, B.; Skinner, M.; Gouli, S.; Ashikaga, T.; Teillon, H. 1998. Survival of hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) at low temperatures. Forest Science. 44:

Pielou, E. C. 1988. The world of northern evergreens Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. 174 pages.

Pillai, A. 1964. Root apical organization in gymnosperms- some conifers Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 1-13.

Prager, E. M.; Fowler, D. P.; Wilson, A. C. 1976. Rates of evolution in conifers (Pinaceae) Evolution 30: 637-49.

Price, R. A. 1989. The genera of Pinaceae in the southeastern United States J. Arnold Arbor. 70: 247-305.

Quimby, J. 1996. Value and importance of hemlock ecosystems in the eastern United States. In: S.M. Salom, T.C. Tigner, and R.C. Reardon, eds. Proceedings of the First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review, Charlottsville, VA, 1995. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team-Morgantown, WV. FHTET 96-10. pp. 1-8.  http://na.fs.fed.us/fhp/hwa/pub/95_proceedings/Quimby.pdf 

Rehder, A. A. 1915. The name of the hemlock spruce Rhodora 17(195): 59-62. (see reply by O.A. Farwell, Rhodora 17(201):164-168. 1915. see also I. Tidestrom 1918.)

Robinson, W. J. 1909. Experiments on the effect of the soil of the hemlock grove of the New York Botanical Garden upon seedlings J. New York Bot. Gard. 10: 81-7.

Rodich, R. T. 1989. Hemlock migration in the upper Great Lakes region Bull. American Conifer Soc. 7: 1-4.

Rogers, R. S. 1978. Forests dominated by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): distribution as related to site and postsettlement history Canad. J. Bot. 56(7): 843-54.

Rogers, R. S. 1980. Hemlock stands from Wisconsin to Nova Scotia: Transitions in understory composition along a floristic gradient Ecology 61(1): 178-93.

Rooney, T. P. 2001. Deer impacts on forest ecosystems: A North American perspective. Forestry (Oxford) 74: 201-208.

Rooney, T. P.; Dress, W. J. 1997. Patterns of plant diversity in overbrowsed primary and mature secondary hemlock-northern hardwood forest stands J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 43-51.

Royle, D.; Lathrop, R. 1996. Mapping eastern hemlock decline using Landsat Thematic Mapper data Society for Ecological Restoration 1996 International Conference. June 17-22, 1996, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. (Abstract)

Royle, D., Lathrop, R. Hemlock cline in the New Jersey Highlands region, Mapping and monitoring eastern hemlock defoliation due to the hemlock woolly adelgid.  A Research Effort at the Grant F. Walton Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis, Cook College, Rutgers University.  http://www.ecostudies.org/reprints/Jenkins_et_al_1999_Can_J_For_Res_29_630-645.pdf accessed Nov. 07, 2006.

Rudolf, P. O. 1929. A study of the seedling root systems of certain forest trees M.S. Thesis. 60 p.

Santee, W. R.; Monk, C. D. 1981. Stem diameter and dry weight relationships in Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108: 320-3.

Schrot, A. 1998. Assessment of arthropod diversity associated with eastern hemlock forests. Delaware Water Gap National Recreational Area Arthropod Identification Summary, NPS Project Cooperative Agreement # 13. 16p.

Sears, P. B. 1942. Postglacial migration of five forest genera Amer. J. Bot. 29: 684-91.

Shugart, H. H. J.; West, D. C. 1977. Development of an Appalachian deciduous forest succession model and its application to assessment of the impact of the Chestnut Blight. Journal of Environmental Management. 5: 161-179.

Simberloff, D., and P. Stiling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77: 1965-1974.

Simberloff, D., and P. Stiling. 1998. How risky is biological control? Reply. Ecology 79: 1834-1836.

Snyder, C., J. Young, D. Smith, D. Lemarie, R. Ross, and R. Bennett. 1998. Influence of eastern hemlock decline on aquatic biodiversity of Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Final Report to the National Park Service.

Solomon, D. S.; Leak, W. B. 1994. Migration of tree species in New England based on elevational and regional analysis USDA, Forest Service, Northeast Forest Exp. Sta. Res. Pap. NE-688. 9 pp.

Souto, D., T. Luther, and R. Chianese. 1996. Past and current status of HWA in easter and Carolina hemlock stands. In: S.M. Salom, T.C. Tigner, and R.C. Reardon, eds. Proceedings of the First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review, Charlottsville, VA, 1995. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team-Morgantown, WV. FHTET 96-10. pp. 9-15.

St. Hilaire, L. R.; Leopold, D. J. 1995. Conifer seedling distribution in relation to microsite conditions in a central New York forested minerotrophic peatland Canad. J. Forest Res. 5: 261-9. (French summary. See also St. Hilaire, 1994. M.S. thesis, SUNY, Syracuse, NY.)

Stearns, F.; Olson, J. 1958. Interactions of photoperiod and temperature affecting seed germination in Tsuga canadensis Amer. J. Bot. 45: 53-8.

Swihart, R. K.; Picone, P. M. 1998. Selection of mature growth stages of coniferous browse in temperate forests by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Amer. Midl. Naturalist 139: 269-74.

Taylor, R. J. 1971. Phytochemical relationships in the genus Tsuga Amer. J. Bot. 58(5): 466. (Abstract)

Tidestrom, I. 1918. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr Rhodora 20(238): 185-8. (follow up to Rehder & Farwell, 1915. see Farwell's reply in Rhodora 21(246):108-109. 1919.)

Tigner, and R.C. Reardon, eds. Proceedings of the First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review, Charlottsville, VA, 1995. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team-Morgantown, WV. FHTET 96-10. pp. 89-102.

Tyree, M. T.; Benis, M.; Dainty, J. 1973. The water relations of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). III. The temperature dependence of water exchange in a pressure bomb Canad. J. Bot. 51(8): 1537-43.

Tyree, M. T.; Caldwell, C.; Dainty, J. 1975. The water relations of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). V. The localization of resistances to bulk water flow Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1078-84.

Tyree, M. T.; Cheung, Y. N. S.; MacGregor, M. E.; Talbot, A. J. B. 1978. The characteristics of seasonal and ontogenetic changes in the tissue-water relations of Acer, Populus, Tsuga, and Picea Canad. J. Bot. 56(6): 635-47.

Tyree, M. T.; Dainty, J. 1973. The water relations of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). II. The kinetics of water exchange between symplast and apoplast Canad. J. Bot. 51(8): 1481-9.

Tyrrell, L. E.; Crow, T. R. 1994. Structural characteristics of old-growth hemlock-hardwood forests in relation to age Ecology 75: 370-86.

USDA Forest Service. 2001. Hemlock woolly adelgid web site Northeastern area.

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