European Trees And Forests:  General Articles and Reports

European Forest Week, 20-24 OCTOBER 2008  Event report. The first European Forest Week was held from 20-24 October 2008. It consisted of over 100 forest-related events held concurrently in 30 countries across Europe. The main event, the joint meeting of the Sixty-sixth session of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Timber Committee and Thirty-fourth session of the European Forestry Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, took place at the FAO headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 21-24 October 2008.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.

European Forest Institute The European Forest Institute is the leading forest research network in Europe. Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.

European Forests and Protected Areas: Gap Analysis  This gap analysis of forest protected areas in Europe was designed to provide relevant information on the distribution and conservation status of European temperate forests, in support of the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy and in particular WWF's Forest Strategy for Europe.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Save the World's Forests The Status of protected and natural forests in Europe Notes on the forests in various countries in Europe.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.

Forest Movement Europe: Co-ordinated by FERN  FERN co-ordinates the Forest Movement Europe (FME) - an informal network of European NGOs working on forest-related issues - to promote strong and effective campaign networks and accelerate positive results. The FME is a grouping of more than 45 NGOs from12 European countries working on forest issues. the movement has been in existence, although under different names, for nearly ten years. Its purpose is to share information, to develop joint strategies and a wider European perspective on forest issues. The FME also supports NGOs and Indigenous Peoples Organizations in the South in their activities to protect forests.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.

State of the World's forests:  UN-ECE/FAO Agriculture & Timber Division 1995 Prepared at the request of the Executive Committee of the FAO European Forestry Commission to provide better information on the European dimension of world forestry.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.

Forest Protection Portal Ecological Science Based Forest Preservation & Conservation Advocacy Provides Vast Forest Protection News, Information Retrieval Tools and Original Analysis.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009. 

Blue Planet:  European Deciduous Forests Very little of the deciduous forest biome of Europe is left. Long ago most of the forests were turned into agriculture and pastures. At one time Europe was covered with closed deciduous forests of oaks, elms, birch, lime, and alders from as far north as Scotland, Ireland, down to France, most of Germany, and eastward to the Urals.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: The Condition of Forests in Europe, 2005 Executive Report. Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.

European forests - ecosystem conditions and sustainable use. EEA Report No 3/2008.  Despite political commitment, Europe is struggling to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2010. Forests, as the hosts of much of the biological diversity in Europe, are vital to this debate. Any initiative designed to halt the biodiversity loss in Europe must take forests into account.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

Central European mixed forests (PA0412): World Wildlife Organization Located in the lowland plains of northern Europe, the Central European mixed forest ecoregion extends from eastern Germany to northern Moldova and northeastern Romania. The ecoregion covers large portions of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, as well as a portion of the Czech Republic. Though dominated by mixed broadleaf and conifer forests, due to past glaciation, uniform topography, and proximity to Eastern European steppe, many boreal and thermophilous plant species can be found in the ecoregion.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.

Greenpeace International  - European Forests The Last Ancient Forests of Europe combine Europe's few remaining tracts of ancient forest in Scandinavia with the adjoining forest of European Russia (from the western flanks of the Ural mountains). These boreal forests represent Europe's last remaining intact ancient forest. These forests have ensured the survival of numerous plant and animal species, including bears, flying squirrels and the highly endangered eagle owl.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

Greenpeace International  - Map of Europe's last ancient forests  Deciduous forests once covered almost the whole of central and western Europe. Today the continent's only undisturbed forests are in the far north. Sweden and Finland have only three percent of the forest that used to cover Europe. Only 14 percent of the forests in European Russia remain.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

Protected Forests in Europe. Forests cover about 1 000 million hectares in Europe.Consequently, almost half of Europe’s land area is forested. But how much of this area is designated for the protection of forest biological and landscape diversity? Protected forests amount to 11.7% of the total forest area in Europe. Of these, 85% are designated to conserve forest biodiversity, while 15% are designated to protect landscapes.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

Cathedral Groves Single ancient big trees inspire with awe, and their individuality and historical importance are in some instances recognized by the trees being given proper names. Many European tree websites are dedicated to such monumental and exceptional trees which are fully protected as natural heritage, or nature monuments (Naturdenkmaeler). Yet most of the named trees in Europe are no more than 500 years old and only in exceptional cases do they reach over 800 years.  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

Maps for Tree Species in Europe  Language: English.  Country: N/A. Accessed:  November 12, 2011. 


Albania:  Forests and Trees

Albania First National Communication  The Albanian forests cover 36% of the territory. Although Albania has extensive forests, 30% have been declared damaged by the uncontrolled cutting of the past ten years. The damages caused by burning and windstorms in forest species is another phenomenon which shows a variation.  Language: English.  Country: Albania. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

USDA International Programs - Albania  Although slightly smaller than the state of Maryland, Albania is a country of rich natural diversity. Situated on the Adriatic and Ionian Coast between Greece and the former Yugoslavia, it boasts a landscape of coastal plains and a largely forested mountainous interior, and is home to the deepest lake in the Balkans. Albania enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate that supports a unique set of species, including the rare and endangered Dalmation Pelican; 277 species of birds; wild herbs that include raspberry and blackberry leaf, bilberry, nettle, rosehips, chamomile, thyme, oregano, sage, bearberry, licorice; and 400 species of flowering plants. Language: English.  Country: Albania. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Working Together in Albanian Communal Forestry By Kuenda Laze and Haki Kola.  Albania Forestry Project, founded by Albania Government, World Bank, Italian Government and other donors has three principal objectives: restore degraded State-owned forest and pasture areas and promote their sustainable use; promote the conservation of natural forest ecosystems; and take the initial steps in the transition of the forestry/pasture sector to a market economy, separating commercial from regulatory functions and establishing mechanisms for self-financing of the commercial activities.  Language: English.  Country: Albania. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Forestry in Albania.  Information on forest cover in Albania published by the FAO Forest Resources Assessment Programme in the working paper 20.  Language: English.  Country: Albania. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Terrestrial Ecoregions - Pindus Mountains mixed forests (PA1217).  The Pindus Mountain range, extending across the countries of Greece, FYROM, and Albania, contains high, steep peaks, dissected by many deep canyons and other karstic landscapes. At higher elevations the forest is composed of conifer species, while at lower altitudes, mixed broadleaf species predominate. The region has an outstanding rate of floral endemism. Surprisingly, the Mediterranean’s forests are second only to the tropical Andes worldwide in richness of endemic plants, and this ecoregion’s rate of endemism can exceed 35%.  Language: English.  Country: Albania. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Andorra:  Forests and Trees

Treking in Andorra Information and maps on walking and trekking in Andorra, especially in the Coma Pedrosa region as well as information on all of the mountain huts in Andorra. Language: English, Spanish, French.  Country: Andorra. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

Southern Europe Forests. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000.  Language: English, French.  Country: Andorra, Various. Accessed:  January 14, 2009.  


Armenia:  Forests and Trees

Disappearing forests: Illegal trade in lumber at root of Armenia’s tree loss By Arpi Harutyunyan. Published: 28 April, 2006  Armenia's forests and urban green spaces barely survived the energy crisis of the early 1990s. Fifteen years later the nation’s forests are again under threat, this time from illegal logging, corruption and the lucrative trade in lumber....Today, trees in the republic’s three most heavily forested areas – the Tavush and Lori regions in the northeast, and south-eastern Syunik – are being cut at such a brisk pace that World Bank and environmentalists predict the landscape will be denuded in 20 to 30 years. Language: English, Varied.  Country: Armenia.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Forests of Armenia Map Language: English.  Country: Armenia.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Last chance for the forests of Armenia by Onnik Krikorian. 17 June 2005.  Government-connected businessmen and state officials engaged in the illegal export of timber from Armenia are mostly to blame for the former Soviet republic’s dwindling number of forests. Whereas 11 per cent of the republic was covered by forests in 1991, the figure stands at below 8 per cent today. Environmentalists warn that unless current trends are reversed, Armenia will be forestless by 2024. In recent weeks, such concerns have have been reinforced by plans to build a highway through the Shikahogh Nature Reserve situated in the southern-most Tens of thousands of trees in the reserve will be felled in government plans to build a second, 90-kilometer road leading to the Iranian border.  Language: English.  Country: Armenia.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Armenia Tree Project Two-thousand-and-seven was a truly remarkable year of achievement for Armenia Tree Project. Your generous support, combined with the professional skills, hard work, and dedication of our staff in Armenia and Watertown has made ATP one of the most trusted and highly respected environmental organizations in the region.

Conservation International - Saving Armenia's Forests. July 2, 2007 By Kellyn Betts.  
Approximately half of the land slated to become the Republic of Armenia’s first model sustainable forest was planted this spring as part of an effort supported by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) to help reduce desertification in the country.  By late 2008, the knowledge gleaned from the project is on schedule to be codified in the country’s first sustainable forestry manual, which may ultimately prove useful to other countries beyond Armenia’s borders in the Caucasus biodiversity hotspot. 

Shikahogh State Preserve 

Don’t Let Armenia Turn Forest into Smoking Copper Pit  Teghut’s forest is located in Armenia and is an ancient, pristine forest in a largely deforested nation. Over 1,500 acres of this forest is about to be destroyed to accommodate a massive, open-pit copper mine. Environmental activists in Armenia are trying to battle the mine, but without the freedoms of speech to which we in the U.S. are accustomed, and with a government openly siding with industry, they need outside pressure to make their path easier.

Armenian Group Fights Large-Scale Disappearance of Forests. Oct. 6, 2008 By Emily Rudge.  In response to the large-scale felling of trees that occurred during Armenia’s energy crisis in the 1990s, one local group has made reforestation and aggressive biodiversity awareness-raising its impassioned mission. Armenian Forests NGO (AFNGO) works to reclaim, protect and expand Armenia’s forests by enlisting the help of local community, business, government and nongovernmental partners.

Armenian Forests NGO - Protecting and restoring Armenia’s forests.  Welcome to the home page of Armenian Forests NGO (nongovernmental organization). Here you will find some background on Armenia, her threatened forests and more about our organization and our approach to protecting Armenia’s forests. Vision: To have a prosperous economy which emphasizes environmental protection and sustainable development. Mission: To protect and restore Armenia’s forests for current and future generations.

Terrestrial Ecoregions - Palearctic (including Europe): 


Austria:  Forests and Trees

Forests in Austria.  Over 170,000 forest owners and another 9,000 persons, most of them working as foresters, district forest officers, forest wardens, or professionally trained forest workers, who are active in the forestry sector either for private forest enterprises or for the Austrian Federal Forests. Most of Austria’s forests are privately owned (80.5 %) and are managed by forest farmers on a very small-scale basis. Almost 170,000 forest farmers manage holdings of less than 200 ha of forested land – this accounts for almost half of the total Austrian forest land. About one third of the total forest area is managed by large forest enterprises. Only about 15% are state-owned and belong to the Austrian Federal Forests. 

The Austrian forest and wood industry - Facts & figures  

Forestry in Changing Societies in Europe: Country Report: Austria.  Teaching Module -Compiled by Stefan Czamutzian, University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna

Ökosystem Wald - Naturwaldreservate Österreich beherbergt durch seine große ökologische Vielfalt unter anderem mit seinen Wäldern einen Naturschatz, den es zu erhalten gilt. Die Jahrhunderte lang betriebene Nutzung unserer Landschaft ist eine der Ursachen für diese Fülle, um die uns heute viele beneiden. Die Erhaltung dieses Naturerbes unserer Wälder ist Ziel und Aufgabe des Lebensministeriums. Language: German. Country: Austria. Accessed: January 16, 2009.
(Biodiversity in Austria’s forests )

Sustainable Forest Management in Austria - Austrian Forest Report 2004, 112 pp.  Language: English. Country: Austria. Accessed: January 16, 2009.


Azerbaijan:  Forests and Trees

Azerbaijan:Forestry.  For the past 200 years the forest area has become twice as less. In 8-9th century the present area of Azerbaijan was covered with 35 percent of forests. At present forests of Azerbaijan constitute 1290 thousand ha or 11% of the territory. 

Capacity Building in Sharing Forest and Market Information. 2005.  11 pages.

Planting the Future: The Greening of Azerbaijan - 30 Million Trees in Last Two Years by Musa Shakiliyev. Winter 2003.  Azerbaijan is situated in a region, both complicated and problematic. This can be explained by its specific diverse transcultural content and its geographic transit location. Circumstances in history, linked to politics, culture and religion have brought about this complexity. 

Babakhan - the Leopard Man, WWF Caucasus Newsletter [pdf, 729 KB].  I came to Azerbaijan to do some film shooting for WWF Caucasus’s leopard conservation project. The Caucasian Leopard is on the critically endangered list in this region. The latest investigations have shown that the small remaining number of this extremely cautious and highly-mobile large cat survive in the Armenia-Nakhichevan border area and in Azerbaijan’s Talish Mountains. 

Hirkan Forests of Azerbaijan Hirkan, bearing the ancient name of the Caspian Sea, is a tertiary flora center and represents a huge unique diversity of flora and fauna. Hirkan forests are the most important refuges for relict forest vegetation. The Hirkan forests are the main climatic barrier and watershed between Caspian Sea and arid Iran-Turan plateau. Steep ridges of Talish mountain system and Elbruz serve as an insuperable barrier of most air accumulated above the Caspian Sea. As a result, the precipitations feed most of rivers that roll down all along steep slopes and mountain gorges and into the Caspian Sea. (Breif note aabove nd nothing elseof imortance)  Link no longer valid.

Country Study on Biodiversity of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 2004. 
The current document, which represents the first National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity, represents a status review of the current situation facing biodiversity and its conservation in Azerbaijan, taking on board input from a range of national specialists and feedback from wide consultations. This document provides information sources for the planning of the national Biodiversity Strategy and Action plan, a process which is now underway for completion in 2004.

Hirkan National Park  - Lonely Planet Introducing Hirkan National Park
In 2004 a vast swathe of dense southern forest was declared the Hirkan National Park. The area is relatively impenetrable, with muddy 4WD tracks and horse trails the only way to get far into the delightful deciduous foliage. The park has a visitor centre (76266; 9am-1pm & 2-5pm Mon-Sat) on the Lənkəran–Astara road, where all visitors to the park are supposed to sign in and buy a ticket (local/foreigner AZN2/4 per day) entitling you to the services of a guide on one of 10 marşrut (routes). That’s great if you’re interested in local flora or fancy searching for leopard prints. 

Iranian-Azeri Efforts to Register Hirkan Forests As World Heritage. August 17, 2006.  Link no longer valid

National Parks of Azerbaijan  Azerbaijan has a total of 6 national parks, 13 state natural parks and 21 reserves, which can be seen here below. 

Plant Genetic Resources in Central Asia and The Caucuses.  Forests are considered to be one of the most valuable natural resources of Azerbaijan that integrate soil, water, trees, bushes, vegetation, wildlife, and microorganisms which mutually affect each other from biological viewpoint in the course of development.


Belarus:  Forests and Trees

Białowieża Primaeval Forest  Białowieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza Białowieska in Poland, is an ancient woodland straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km (43 mi) north of Brest. It is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the immense primeval forest which once spread across the European Plain. Language: English.  Country: Belarus. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

Biodiversity Assessment for Belarus. August 2001.  The Kyiv Regional USAID Mission initiated an assessment of the Regional Program’s adherence to legislative guidelines for the protection of natural resources and biological diversity as prescribed in the Foreign Assistance Act (22 CFR 216) and subsequent amendments (Sec. 117 and Sec. 119). The scope of work required the team to synthesize and analyze existing information and prepare a report that: (i) describes major ecosystems and species diversity of Belarus; (ii) identifies key landscape features for the conservation of biodiversity; (iii) describes current and potential threats to biodiversity conservation; (iv) analyzes policies, land use practices, and obstacles to biodiversity; (v) assesses national conservation policies, strategies and conventions management capacities; (vi) assesses the USAID program’s potential impact on biodiversity; and (vii) identifies potential USAID opportunities to support biodiversity conservation.  Language: English.  Country: Belarus. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

Ministry of Forestry of the Republic or Belarus. Language: English, Russian, German.  Country: Belarus. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

Sarmatic mixed forests.  The Sarmatic mixed forests constitute an ecoregion within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests zone according to the WWF classification (ecoregion PA0436). This ecoregion is situated in Europe between boreal forests/taiga in the north and the broadleaf belt in the south and occupies about 846,100 km² (326,700 mi²) in southernmost Norway, southern Sweden, southwesternmost Finland, Estonia, Latvia, northern Lithuania, northern Belarus and the central part of European Russia. It is bordered by the ecoregions of Scandinavian and Russian taiga (north), Urals montane tundra and taiga (east), East European forest steppe (southeast), Central European mixed forests (southwest) and Baltic mixed forests (west), as well as by the Baltic Sea. The ecoregion consists of mixed forests dominated by Quercus robur (which only occasionally occurs farther north), Picea abies (which disappears further south due to insufficient moisture) and Pinus sylvestris (in drier locations). Geobotanically, it is divided between the Central European and Eastern European floristic provinces of the Circumboreal Region of the Holarctic Kingdom.  Language: English, Country: Various.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

BELOVEZHSKAYA PUSHCHA / BIAŁOWIEżA FOREST BELARUS AND POLAND  United Nations Environemt Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Situated on the watershed between the Baltic and the Black Seas, this immense relatively undisturbed forest of evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved trees is the last large primary temperate forest in lowland Europe and one of its largest biodiversity reserves. It contains several rare species of mammal such as wolf, elk, lynx and otter, and some 300 reintroduced European Bison, an endangered species. Threats to the Site: Large-scale official commercial logging and development of the surrounding old-growth forest.

Belgium:  Forests and Trees

Mammoetbomen in de Benelux [Sequoia's in Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg] by Tim Bekaert Aangezien de mammoetboom (Sequoiadendron) pas in het midden van de 19e eeuw werd ontdekt, zijn de bomen bij ons nog niet oud genoeg om de afmetingen te evenaren die deze bomen halen in hun natuurlijk verspreidingsgebied. Toch zijn de grootste exemplaren in België, Nederland en Luxemburg al erg indrukwekkend. Language: Dutch?.  Country: Belgium, Luxenmburg, and Netherlands. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

Forests of Belgium Ardennes forest, Hallerbos, Silva Carbonaria, Sonian forest.

The Organization for Forests in Belgium (VBV)  is proud to announce its participation in the Billion Tree Campaign. Our goal is to plant one million trees in the area of Flanders, located in the northern part of Belgium. This densely populated and industrialized region has one of the lowest forest percentages of Europe, and our aim is to help remediate this poor record.  Language: English.  Country: Belgium.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.    

Forests, Parks and Nature Reserves in Wallonia The Walloon forest is particularly varied and balanced. It owes its diversity to its history, its geographical locations and its current management combining production and tourist appeals. These different factors contribute to the structuration of the Walloon forest in a mosaic of varied plantings. These mostly consist of broad-leaved trees, 53 of which indigenous essences, representing 52% of the Walloon forest. In total, the Walloon flora counts 355 forest species.   Language: English.  Country: Belgium.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.    

SONIAN FOREST INFORMATION CENTRE  This centre came into existence through the co-operation between the Brussels Institute for Management of the Environment, the service 'Waters en Bossen' and the Free University of Brussels (V.U.B.), the research unit 'General Botany and Nature Management' (APNA) in particular. Language: Dutch French German English.  Country: Belgium.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.    

Caesarsboom (West Flemish: Caesar's Tree)  is a very old tree whose precise age is unknown but is believed to be over 2000 years in age. The ancient tree grows in Lo, a town in Lo-Reninge, a municipality of the West Flanders region of Belgium. Its species is Taxus baccata, common name European Yew. The tree is designated a national monument of Belgium.According to a long-held local legend, Julius Caesar stopped at this tree during his military campaign in the area en route to Britannia in 55 BC, tied his horse to it, and took a nap in the shadow of its foliage.

Bosnia and Herzegovina:  Forests and Trees

Forests, Grasslands, and Drylands-- Bosnia and Herzegovina  1 page graph and table. Language: English.  Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.    

Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina 

Forest and Wood Sector Review Bosnia and Herzegovina, Prepared by: Vladimir Milin, USAID BiH.  Powerpoint Presentation. 

Bulgaria:  Forests and Trees

Private forests in Bulgaria - WWF Background information about small forest owners in Bulgaria and their forest management practices.  Today the Bulgarian forest fund (total forest area in administrative terms) is 3.9 million ha. The area with forest cover is about 3.4 million ha. At present, the forest area accounts for 34% of the territory in Bulgaria, and approximately 87 % of it have forest cover. There is a tendency for increasing of the forest cover in the country during the last 35 years – from 3.4 to 3.9 million ha. Forest cover is expanding through afforestation and natural succession taking place in abandoned agricultural lands which are mostly municipality and private owned.

National Report to the Fifth Session of the United Nations Forum on Forests: Republic of Bulgaria. 


Kamchia Preserve.  Kamchia preserve is situated on the bank of Kamchia River, very close to the Black Sea coast. It was named a preserve in 1951, in an attempt to protect the forests on the riverbank. The forest is made up of nearly 40 types of trees and its height reaches as much as 50 m. Some of the trees are oaks, poplars, willows and ash trees. Some unusual bushes also grow there. Lianas form a natural curtain and keep moisture inside the forest.  

Lopushna Preserve  The preserve of Lopoushna, known under the name of Ouzounboudzhak, is the biggest preserve on the territory of Strandzha Mountain. It is comprised of hills and rocky areas found in the region between Lopoushnitsa and Rezovska rivers. Some of these areas often witness landslides. Beech forests cover most of the preserve’s territory. Some of the species are more than 200 years old. Their height exceeds 30 to 35 m. Evergreen trees and climbing plants can also be seen there. Ouzounboudzhak is a Turkish word coming from the root boudzhak- a quiet and peaceful place. The second name comes from Lopoushnitsa River. The plants known as lopoush and lopoushnitsa can also be seen there. 

Ropotamo Preserve  Ropotamo preserve is situated 50 km south of the coastal city of Bourgas. It includes the banks of Ropotamo River. Ropotamo is one of the oldest preserves in Bulgaria, named as such in 1940. In 1962, Ropotamo lost its preserve status. Coastal over construction and the increasingly growing number of tourists made authorities name Ropotamo a protected area once again in 1992. The preserve houses untypical for the latitude plant species. It is also well-known for the beautiful rock phenomena, dunes and swamps. Ropotamo’s banks are covered by thick forests. Some important plant species used in the production of medicines can be seen there.

Silkosia Preserve  Silkosia preserve is situated in Strandzha Mountain, between the villages of Bulgari and Kosti. Its territory includes part of the bank of Veleka River Silkosia is the oldest preserve in the country, named as such in 1931. The altitude of the region is 250 m above the sea level. Many plant and animal species inhabit the area. Some of them are rare, while others are untypical for the Bulgarian climatic conditions. Swamps form the lower level of the preserve. An interesting phenomenon can be observed in Silkosia. Beech trees typically grow in colder areas at higher altitudes, while oaks occupy lower levels. In Silkosia, beech trees grow in the lower parts, while oak trees grow in the upper and colder territories.

Strandzha Preserve  Strandzha preserve has been acknowledged in 1995. Its area represents one percent of Bulgaria’s territory. Five preserves form together Strandzha. These are Silkosia, Tisovitsa, Sredoka, Vitanovo and Ouzounboudzhak (Lopoushna). Another 12 protected areas, the architecture preserve of the village of Bryshlian and the folklore preserve of Bulgari village are also part of the preserve. Strandzha Mountain is located in the southeastern part of the country and reaches the city of Bourgas in the north and Istanbul in the south. The mountain is comprised of moderately high hills. Its highest point on Bulgarian territory is Gradishteto peak, 710 m.

Severen Dzhendem  Severen Dzhendem preserve was created in 1983. It is situated in Central Balkan National Park and includes the area on the bank of Vidima River and the northern mountain slopes above the river. The preserve is connected to another protected area, Dzhendema, which makes various animal species migrate between the two. Nearly two thirds of the preserve’s territory is covered by forests. Depending on the height, the forests are either fir-tree or beech-tree. 

Central Balkan National Park  Fifty-six percent of the Central Balkan National Park is forested. However, the Park forests account for only one percent of all Bulgarian forests. They are almost evenly distributed between the southern and northern side of the mountain ridge. Of the forests within the Park, 97% are natural, and 99% originate from seed. The average age of a forest in Central Balkan National Park is 111 years; the broadleaf forests average 121 years. 


Forest Resources and Their Ecological Functions in Bulgaria by Christo Bojinov  

Granit oak  an oak in Granit village near Stara Zagora in Bulgaria; one of the oldest trees in Europe, estimated to be about 1,650 years old. Its crown spread covers an area of 1,017 square metres, its girth is 7.45 m, and its height is 23.4 m. 

The Baikushev's Pine (Bulgarian: Байкушевата мура)  is a coniferous tree from the species Bosnian Pine (Pinus heldreichii) situated in Pirin, southwestern Bulgaria. It is called after his discoverer the forest-guard Baikushev. It is located close to the Banderitsa refuge on the road between Bansko and Vihren refuge. The tree dates from more than 1,300 years which makes it one of the oldest in the country and contemporary of modern Bulgaria's first Khan, Asparukh. Its approximate size is: height 24 m; diameter 2,2 m; circumference 7.8m.

Rodope montane mixed forests (PA0435) In this ecoregionthe Rodope Mountain Mixed Forests, you could spend the day skiing snowy peaks, picnicking in a grassy mountain meadow, or enjoying the hot sun of the dry lowlands. This ecoregion follows the Rodope Mountain chain through Bulgaria and extends into Greece, Macedonia, and Yugoslavia. These montane forests have both broadleaf and coniferous trees in various combinations depending on altitude, latitude, soil, and climate. Habitats include alpine tundra-like meadows, pine forests, and mixed forests, along with riparian habitats. 

Croatia:  Forests and Trees

Croatia Safeguards Old Growth Forests  ZAGREB, Croatia, June 6, 2001 (ENS) - The Republic of Croatia has signed an agreement to extend special protection to the forests of Velebit National Park. The 770 square mile area of scenic rocky landscapes contains some of the few old growth forests remaining in the Mediterranean region. Announced Tuesday to mark World Environment Day, the agreement has been designated a Gift to the Earth by the conservation organization World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Republic of Croatia. Gifts to the Earth are new actions or clear commitments by governments, organizations, corporations or individuals to help preserve the planet’s natural wealth. The Velebit mountains, in the Dinarid Mountain range, are part of the UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Program and have been identified by the WWF's Forest Hot Spot Initiative as one of the 10 most important forest areas in the Mediterranean region. 

National Parks in Croatia 
There are eight national parks in Croatia. Their total area is 994 km²; 759 km² is land and 235 km² is water.

Explore Croatia - Nature Ranked among Europe’s top five countries in terms of biodiversity, Croatia is now striving to protect its treasures. Divided into a total of 450 protected areas, a total 5,846 square kilometers are preserved – about 10% of Croatia’s total land mass. If you include maritime areas, the total rises to 6,129 square kilometers of protected wilderness – wilderness that will be preserved for future generations to enjoy just as we do now. Of those 450 protected areas, 79 are special reserves. These include many types, including botanical, forest, geomorphologic, hydrologic, ichthyologic, ornithologic, maritime, and zoologic – every aspect of nature’s realm is represented and protected. Of the remaining 371 zones, 38 are park forests, 70 are protected landscapes, 108 are monuments of nature (such as forests of rare tree species), and 135 are monuments of park architecture, containing such man-made shrines as arboreta, botanical gardens, and parks.

Cyprus:  Forests and Trees

Cyprus Mediterranean forests (PA1206)  Located in the Mediterranean Sea, this island ecoregion is home to a variety of flora and fauna. More than 125 endemic plants are found here including the endangered Cyprus cedar (Cedrus brevifolia) and the Cyprus oak (Quercus alnifolia). The island also serves as a stepping stone between Europe and Africa for millions of migratory birds every year. Over 350 species of birds can be found here, most of which are migratory. Some 46 residents and 27 migratory species breed regularly on the island; about 10 species are endemic. 

Department of Forests in Cyprus The main mission of the Department of Forests is to promote sustainable forest management and protection of the state forests in Cyprus which cover an area of 163520 hectares representing 17,74% of the total area of the island. Out of these 123910 hectares (13,44%) are found in the government controlled areas and 39610 hectares (4,30%) are situated in the areas occupied by Turkey. In addition, the Department of Forests is responsible for implementing the government Forests Policy and the Forest Law.

Cyprus - National Forest Parks In Cyprus ten (10) National Forest Parks have been declared as such to this day, covering a total area of 15627,22 hectares.

Cyprus Nature Reserves  In accordance to the Forest Law, “Protected Flora and Fauna Area” is a Main State Forest which is declared by the Council of Ministers as a forest and its aim is to provide proper and permanent protection to the flora and fauna.

Forests of Cyprus - Young Reporters In this article we have tried to give a general picture of the history and the morphology of the forests of Cyprus. We describe the foes of the forests and we discuss different ways to protect them. Upon completing this project we realised that, as far as the environment is concerned, our whole way of thinking has changed and we hope that this will also be true for every reader. 

Forests of North Cyprus  The forests of Cyprus cover an area of 174,275 ha or 120 square miles (i.e. 18.85% of the total area of the island). Most of the forest area, 160,797 ha, is state land and is divided into main and minor State Forests. The main forests, comprising 144,737 ha, are situated mostly on the two mountain ranges and include forest reserves, national forest parks, and nature reserves. The minor forests (16,061 ha) are multiple-use forest areas, communal and municipal forests, nurseries, and grazing grounds. Private forests cover an area of about 13,578 ha and belong to private individuals, Evkaf, or monasteries, etc. 

Cyprus and Paphos Forest Guide: Troodos and the Paphos Forest Today, the island's Cedar forest is restricted to one valley only. It also suffered from lumbering for shipbuilding and from forest fires. Under these circumstances its natural regeneration was also influenced from competition, from the more prolific Brutia Pine which is quicker in occupying vacant niches.

Pitsillia hazelnut forests threatened by drought By Anna Hassapi, 2009.  THE HAZELNUT forests of Pitsillia, part of the Natura 2000 network, are drying out due to the general water shortage problem, the Green Party said yesterday. “The whole green area of the brooks that was full of adult hazelnut trees is now dried up. After many years of neglect and before the government implemented their plans to rejuvenate and maintain the natural habitat of the area, the last few years of drought have come to strike the final blow,” the Greens said in a statement issued yesterday.

North Cyprus Environment  Northern Cyprus hosts over 1600 plant specia of which 22 are endemic, 350 species of birds, of which 7 are endemic, and 26 different species of reptile and amphibia. 1. Forests large areas of Troodos Mountains and Borthern slopes of Besparmak Mountains(before the 1995 forest fire) were covered with forests. The most common tree is Aleppo pine(Pinus halepensis brutia) followed by Troodos pine(pinus nigra), cedar trees, cypress trees and Cyprus oak (Laca- quercus alnifolia). Aleppo pine covers 90% of the forests in Cyprus. About 17% of the whole island is being classified as woodland. Where the forest has been destroyed, tall shrub communities of arbutus and rachne, pistacia terebinthus, olea europea, quercus coccifera and styrax officinalis may survive, but such maquis is uncommon. 

Czech:  Forests and Trees

Forest Naturalness Assessment in The Czech Republic Old growth forest map and tables.

Country Issue Report – Forest Use and Conservation in the Czech Republic by Dana Koderová, Tomáš Krejzar, Kateřina Trejbalová, Karel Vančura, Forestry Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Czech Republic.  The area of the Czech Republic is 78,866 km2; the area of forestland is 26,370 km2,which represents 33.4%. Forest has increasingly become the important factor of socioeconomic development of society. Costs of the fulfillment of all social demands made on forests have to be covered to a large extent from income from timber sales. Due to a decline in timber prices and reduction of demand for roundwood, the share of the forestry sector on GDP, which in long term represents only about 0.6-0.7%, dropped.

Forests of the Czech Republic 6 pages. Forests in the Czech Republic have undergone significant change over the past two centuries. The majority of natural forest ecosystems have been replaced by unstable spruce and pine monocultures, which do not fulfill the crucial environmental and social roles that natural or semi-natural forest ecosystems play within a healthy countryside and society. This change has been accompanied by a dramatic decline in biodiversity. According to scientists, the simplification of forest stands in the Czech Republic was also one of the reasons for the dramatic flood situations in 1999 and 2002. Forestry management in the majority of Czech forests remains poor and does not reflect the urgent need to move away from the focus on timber production and towards integrating environmental and social needs into forest management.

Czech Republic to have more primeval forests, [13-07-2006 12:25 UTC] By Daniela Lazarová.  Virgin - or primeval - forests are rare in this part of the world where logging and tourism have taxed Nature to a considerable extent. Now there are efforts to try and restore Nature's bounty for future generations. In addition to protecting existing nature reserves Czech environmentalists are trying to create new ones. If all goes well in several hundred years' time there should be new primeval forests in the north and eastern parts of the country. 

Šumava National Park and Reserve.  The Šumava National Park and Reserve is situated at the southwest border of the Czech Republic with Germany and Austria. The National Park is located in three different regions - Český Krumlov, Prachatice, and Klatovy. 

Nature Parks 

Protected Areas in the Czech Republic 


Danish Forest and Nature Agency.  The main focus of the Danish Forest and Nature Agency will be on ensuring opportunities for nature recreation, and to develop, establish and restore nature and to undertake practical management measures for wild flora and fauna. In addition to the efforts for nature on state land, the Danish Forest and Nature Agency will engage in green partnership arrangements with i.a. local authorities, aiming at nature management and awareness raising.

Oak dune forests in Denmark and their ecology, WIND Peter.  (abs) Floristic and structural data of oak dune forests in western Jutland (Kaergård and Blåbjerg) were collected in 1998 and compared with previous studies of Danish oligotrophic oak forests. A hierarchical divisive clustering resulted in four main clusters, containing two coastal oak vegetation types, Quercus robur-Carex arenaria and Q. robur-Pleurozium schreberi communities, both restricted to the oak dune forest areas in western Jutland, and two more widespread oak forest types, Q. robur-Vaccinium myrtillus and Q. robur-Holcus mollis communities. 

The King Oak - Denmark  An oak with an estimated age of 1,500 - 2,000 year-old called Kongeegen (the King Oak) is an oak tree in Denmark. It grows in on the island of Sjaelland. It may well be oldest living organism in northern Europe. It probably originally grew in an open meadow, to account for its short trunk and low branching, with other taller forest trees growing up around it subsequently. The taller trees around it are now shading it and slowly killing it.

Estonia:  Forests and Trees

Oandu Forest, Estonia - Flikr photo gallery  One of the largest forest conservation areas in Europe - some of the trees are 1000s of years old and there have never been any fields or meadows. 

Country report - ESTONIA, 2004.  Forests cover more than a half of Estonia’s mainland territory. There has been constant and rapid increase in forest area and growing stock of stands during the last 60 years. Forests and forestry are of great importance for the Estonian economy and environment.

Welcome to Lahemaa National Park.  Lahemaa is the oldest and largest national park in Estonia representing the nature and cultural heritage, typical of North Estonia. Established in 1971, covering an area of 72,500 ha. It encompasses 47,410 ha of land and 25,090 ha of sea. Oandu Old-growth Forest Nature Trail – 4.7 km, partly boardwalk. The start and finish at Oandu. The trail shows the characteristic features of a natural forest.

Gulf of Finland and the North-Estonian coastal plain  About 65% of the North-Estonian Coastal Plain is covered by forest. The most extensive forests are met in Lahemaa. A large variety of forest types can be seen near Oandu, where they can be studied, while hiking along the nature trail. Pine forests are common in the eastern part of the coastal plain, growing on the marine sand and dunes between Meriküla and Narva-Jõesuu. Patches of a relic oak forest growing on dunes has been preserved near Kaberla. The so-called klint forest on the talus of the North-Estonian Klint is very rich in species. Among the trees, lime, ash and rowan are very common and spruce somewhat common. The penny flower (Lunaria rediviva), common in beech forests of Central Europe, but rare in Estonia, is under protection. 

Finland Forests

Finland Forests. Greenpeace International.  In the north of Finland, the Finnish government's own logging company Metsähallitus is logging forests that are crucial for the protection of biodiversity. Less than 5 percent of Finland's forests remain as ancient forests.  Language: English.  Country: Finland.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

Friends of Ancient Forest  Friends of Ancient Forest is an association which aims at promoting conservation of forests. Up to our knowledge Finland has hitherto lacked an organised group with the single focus of forest conservation. Forests, however, deserve their own defenders; they represent the inaugural form of Finnish nature that was only briefly disturbed for the duration of the last ace age.   Language: Finish, English.  Country: Finland.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

FINLAND - FORESTS AND FORESTRY  Finland is Europe's most heavily-forested country. Forests as defined by the FAO cover 23 million hectares or 74.2% of the land area. In Europe, Finland is a "forest giant", there being over sixteen times more forest per capita than in European countries on average. Finland's forests have been intensively harvested over the last few decades. Despite the loss of land after the last wars, its forest reserves are now greater than ever before in the 20th century, and they are continuing to grow. 

Finnish Forest Association - Let us tell you about Finnish forests  The purpose of this environmental report is to provide an overall picture of the quality and extent of the environmental effect of Finnish forestry, as well as of the management of these effects. The viewpoint includes more than just ecology: in line with the principles of sustainable development, an attempt is made to describe the economic and social impact of forestry as well.

Finninsh Nature Leagur - Old Growth Forests in Finland.  Finland is a highly forested country and a high percentage of this is managed effectively. Nonetheless, Finland's forests are currently experiencing a massive biodiversity crisis. Despite the large forest area, very few forests remain in a natural or semi-natural state. The small area of remaining old-growth forest in Finland is under serious threat. Present forest protection network in Finland is inadequate and needs to be improved considerably. English and Finnish

Finland resumes its destruction of old-growth forests Greenpeace International 17 October 2003 Time is running out for the old-growth forests of Finland. The vast majority of Finland's valuable old-growth is owned by the state and logged by the state-owned company Metsähallitus. Metsähallitus' logging practices include clearcutting, logging in habitats of threatened and vulnerable species and logging in areas of special scenic or cultural value - including in areas that are critical for the reindeer herding of the indigenous Sami people. 

Forests – an integrated part of Finnish life by J. Heino and J. Karvonen  In Finland, one of the world’s most heavily forested countries, almost 60 percent of the forest is owned by private citizens and access to all forests is free – and almost everybody has an opinion about forests and forestry.

Treasures of the boreal forests By Salla Korpela, journalist.  Nordic growing conditions are harsh yet productive. The berries and mushrooms that grow in Finnish forests are part of the traditional Finnish diet, and gathering them is a pastime for many families that has been passed down through generations. The fruits of the northern forests are coveted by gourmet chefs, and are increasingly exported.

France:  Forests and Trees

France's Forests.  10th World Forestry Congress. Our statistics show that France has 14 million ha of forest. A further 8 million ha are found in the overseas territories, mainly in French Guyana. Overall, one-quarter of France's territory is under forest cover. The varied configuration of our forest heritage is reflected in our wealth of climates, which range from mild and humid oceanic conditions through to the extremes of the continental land mass and arid Mediterranean and harsh mountain climates, and in our geological diversity ancient granite soils, dry limestone and fertile alluvial loam.  Language: English. Country: France. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

The Paimpont Forest, Heir to Primeval Broceliande  & The Golden Tree, a True Message of Love between Myth and Reality   France Monthly.  January 2006. Tourist blurbs about the forests on the Brittany Peninsula. Language: English. Country: France. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

Ministry of Agriculture   Language: French. Country: France. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

French Biosphere Reserves The French Network of Biosphere Reserves represents a high level of diversity whether geographic, ecological, social or cultural. Enriched by their differences and working in various human and institutional contexts, the Biosphere Reserves do, however, have to face similar problems, giving meaning to the programmes of collaboration established.  Language: French, English. Country: France. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

  • Cévennes Biosphere Reserve Located in the South of the Massif Central, the National Park / Biosphere Reserve of the Cévennes encompasses some majestic landscapes as different as the limestone « Causses », the granite massifs of Aigoual and of Mont Lozère and the schist mountains of the Cévennes. 

  • Luberon Biosphere Reserve In 1997, the territory of the Regional Natural Park of the Luberon, which had come into being twenty years beforehand, was recognised as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. Located between the Vaucluse Mountains and the Durance river valley, it covers 179 600 hectares and includes 67 communes with a population of 150 000. In the centre, the Luberon Massif rises to an altitude of 1 125 meters on Mourre-Nègre. It is at a cross-roads of climatic influences and is therefore home to a great diversity of species of plant and animal; oak forests in the Big Luberon and garrigue and cedars in the Little Luberon with a specific fauna including numerous raptors. 

  • Biosphere Reserve of Mont Ventoux   The Biosphere Reserve of Mont Ventoux was created in 1990. It covers 81 000 hectares and the number of inhabitants is near 26 000. Mont Ventoux (1909 meters altitude) is the highest point of Provence. The floristic richness at the top of Mont Ventoux is home to exceptional floristic richness with over sixty species classified as rare. Around the summit there is a large variety of trees, in particular cedars of Lebanon, planted there in 1861, but also evergreen oak, beech and juniper. One counts more than thousand vegetable species ; many ones are rare or protected (Arctic plants, Mediterranean and African species).

  • Fontainebleau Biosphere Reserve  The Fontainebleau Biosphere Reserve was the 365th Reserve to be created in the world and the 10th in France. It covers the forest of Fontainebleau and part of the Regional Natural Park of the Gâtinais français spreading over 70 000 hectares and including about 60 000 inhabitants. The forest which covers 54% of the territory of the Biosphere Reserve is mainly (92%) state owned. It is composed of mixed forest (oak, beech, Scots pines ...), heath-land, meadows and sand rock ponds. These natural conditions have allowed the development of an exceptionally rich fauna and flora: there are 6800 species of animals including more than 5000 insects and 5700 species of plant. 

  • Fango Valley Biosphere Reserve  This Biosphere Reserve, which was created in 1977, follows the limits of the Fango Valley watershed. The river Fango is a mountain torrent that flows into the Gulf of Galéria in Corsica. It rises from the Mediterranean sea up to an altitude of 2556 meters and covers 23 400 hectares. The different altitude zones are clearly represented in the strongly characteristic Mediterranean-type valley with evergreen broadleaf forest and Mediterranean maquis. The holm oak groves of the Fango are ancient stands where the evergreen oak reigns firm. The steep rocky landscapes of the high valley are home to the Corsican mouflon, the bearded vulture or Lamergeier and the Golden Eagle. Through this imposing landscape of preserved nature, rushes the Fango torrent, reputed for its clear waters, their exceptional chemical quality and very low mineral content, and its endemic trout. 

  • Mount Ventoux Biosphere Reserve  In 1989, the Regional Natural Park of the Vosges du Nord  was granted Biosphere Reserve status. It covers 130 500 hectares, with almost 80 000 inhabitants belonging to 113 communes. Located along the Franco-German border, the reserve is characterised by forest landscapes: over 60% of the territory is covered by forests of beech, oaks, and Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). Although montane, the area is not at high altitudes (200 to 581 metres at the Grand Wintersberg). 

The Forest Group of French Biosphere Reserves Seven of the ten french biosphere reserves of are forested region, which gives to the "forest group" a particular importance. One of the forest group objectives is to be an exchanges place between the coordinators of the biosphere reserves and the managers forest, public and private.  Language: French, English. Country: France. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  

Chêne-Chapelle (Chapel-Oak) of Allouville. Saturday December 15th 2007  (photo) The most famous tree in France. Actually, t’s more than just a tree: it’s a building and a religious monument all in one. In 1669, l’Abbe du Detroit and du Cerceau decided to build a chapel in (at that time) a 500 years old or so oak (Quercus robur) tree made hollow by a lightning bolt. The priests built a small altar to the Virgin Mary. Later on, a second chapel and a staircase were added.  Language: English. Country: France. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Chêne-Chapelle (Chapel-Oak) of Allouville-Bellefosse. 10 Most Magnificent Trees of the World. March 21, 2007.  (multiple photos)  Language: English. Country: France. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Les Arbres Vénérables de la Planète (Venerable Trees of the Earth) by Jerome Hutin  Language: French Country: NA. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.


Georgia:  Forests and Trees

Growing forest business in the GeorgiasDocument Actions  Leaders of Georgia’s $20 billion forestry and forest products industry believe the forest resources in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia can be a catalyst to lead this poor nation from poverty to prosperity, in much the same way as it did across the southeastern state through the first half of the 20th Century.

Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park  The Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park is located in central Georgia and is part of the lesser Caucasus. The park is one of the largest in Europe - it covers more than 76,000 hectares of native forest and sub-alpine and alpine meadows, home to rare species of flora and fauna.

Georgia establishes new national park in the Caucasus Mountains. 23 Jun 2006.  Tbilisi, Georgia – Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili has approved the creation of a new national park in the Caucasus Mountains. The new Mtirala National Park, covering 15,806ha, will protect a unique ecosystem of forests and wildlife in Georgia’s eastern part of the Black Sea Basin in the west Lesser Caucasus mountain range.



Germany:  Forests and Trees

Alte Baumriesen, Bizarre Wuchsformen und Baumschoenheiten (Gigantic Old Trees) by Joerg Riedel  Alte Baumriesen, bizarre Wuchsformen und Baumschönheiten.  Language: German.. Country: Europe. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Arboretum in Freiburg-Günterstal Language: German

Baum des Jahres (Tree of the Year) by Kuratorium Baum des Jahres.  Language: German.. Country: Germany. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Alte Liebenswerte Baeume in Deutschland (Old Trees of Value) by Hans Joachim Froehlich. Language: German.. Country: Germany. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Baum Patriarchen (Tree Patriarchs) by Walter J. Pilsak.  Language: German.. Country: Germany. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Baum Veteranen (Tree Veterans) by Juergen Huefner.  Language: German.. Country: Germany. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Baum Veteranen (Tree Veterans) by Juergen Huefner.  Language: German.. Country: Germany. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Bemerkenswerte Baeume (Remarkable Trees) by Andreas Gomolka.  Eine kleine, aber hoffentlich feine Webseite zu bemerkenswerten Bäumen in Deutschland, mit Schwerpunkt Brandenburg und angrenzende Bundesländer.  Language: German.. Country: Germany. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Baeume und Waelder (Trees and Forests) by Walter J. Pilsak  Tauchen Sie ein in die zauberhafte Welt der Bäume. Lassen Sie sich von meinen Texten und Fotos in den Bann ziehen. Vielleicht erhaschen Sie etwas von der lebendigen Atmosphäre und dem Geheimnis des Waldes und dessen Bäume! Language: German.. Country: Germany. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Ivenacker Eichen (The Ivenack Oaks) by the Ivenack Oak Society.  The Thousand Years Old Oaks Of Ivenack The oaks of Ivenack present an exceptional feature of cultural and natural history not encountered once more anywhere else in Germany. They are not remnants of primeval forest but evidence of the wide-spread way the land was made use of as "Hudewald" (Huetewald), i.e. as pasturage, throughout the Middle Ages, which have survived in the deer park of Ivenack throughout centuries until present time.  Language: German., English. Country: Germany. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Ivenack Oak,  a huge and ancient Pedunculate oak in Ivenack, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, thought to be about 800 years old, 35 m tall, 11 m in girth at breast height and 16.5 m near the ground. The largest oak in Germany and (in wood volume) probably in Europe:

The Black Forest (tourist blurb)  Sitting in the south west corner of the state of Baden-Württemberg, the Black Forest borders France, Switzerland, and the Neckar River. The forest itself straddles the continental divide, with the Atlantic watershed which is drained by the Rhine to one side and the Black Sea watershed which is drained by the Danube to the other. This forest acquired its name due to a large concentration of pine trees which causes it to look quite dark from a distance. Additionally, the nearby mountains can cast their shadows over the valleys and further serve to darken it. However, the town at the center of the Black Forest in Germany, Freudenstadt, has made a claim that it actually receives the more hours of sunshine than any other town in nation.  

Forests and Forestry in Germany  Within the EU Germany is one of the most densily wooded countries. About 10.8 mill. hectares are covered by forests which makes almost one third of the whole area of the country. The forests in Germany are unevenly distributed as shown in the map of fig. 6. There are regional fluctuations in percent of the forested area from a minimum of 3% in the district of Dithmarschen (Schleswig - Holstein) in the north to about 70% locally in the northern part of the Black Forest (Baden Wuerttemberg) in the south of Germany. The map (fig. 6) informs about the forest distribution in Germany. 

Beech Primeval Forests of Germany  The serial property includes selected core areas of existing protected areas in four German "Lander". The Beech forests, selected for the nomination to the World Heritage List, are the most important examples of Central European beech forests. They represent the last remnants of the natural vegetation of Central Europe. The cluster contains different ecological types of beech forests from the sea shore and glacial plain landscapes up to limestone hills and middle mountains. Serial property including selected parts of the National Parks Kellerwald-Edersee (Hesse), Jasmund, Miiritz (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) and Hainich (Thuringia) and selected part of the Biosphere reserve.

Bavarian Forest National Park  Meet the giants in the primeval forest's wilderness - The Giant trees in the Bavarian Forest National Park. You can find the Giants at the Watzlik-Hain trail. The Bavarian Forest National Park is a realm, where not man, but nature rules. Being Germany's first founded National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park belongs to the most visited vacation areas in our country. Together with the Sumava (Bohemian Forest of Czech Republic) National Park, adjoining it to the east, the Bavarian Forest National Park is the largest contiguous area of protected forest in central Europe, where nature has been left completely to its own devices.

Beech Forests in Germany. Germany can be regarded as beech forest country. 26% of the total distribution area of European red beech forests lies in Germany. Numerous types of beech forest only exist here, in the core area of the natural beech forest range. Beech forests therefore account for a significant share of Germany’s biodiversity.

Great Britain  

Forestry Commission of Great Britain We are the government department responsible for the protection and expansion of Britain's forests and woodlands.  Language: English. Country: English. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Favourite Trees of Epping Forest and Harlow District.  Epping Forest District Council, Countrycare and Local Heritage Initiative is working to help support the growing demand for care and attention to our valuable favourite trees within the Epping District. Language: English. Country: England. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

Royal Forestry Society Welcome to the website of the Royal Forestry Society. We are dedicated to the wise management of trees and woodlands,and to increasing people's understanding of forestry. On this site you can find out about all aspects of our work.  Language: English. Country: Geat Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Ancient Tree Hunt. / Welcome to the Ancient Tree Hunt website Help us to find and map all the old, fat trees across the UK.  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

The Ancient Tree forum  The ancient tree forum and the Wodland Trust - working together to conserve the UK's ancient trees.  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

The Ancient Yew Group  The Ancient Yew - Information and discussion forum for members of the public.  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

The Major Oak of Sherwood Forest, England.  This giant tree, with a waistline of 35 ft, a height of 52 feet and weighing an estimated 23 tons, has been here for about 800-1000 years. The exact age of this magnificent tree can only be estimated. Its huge size is a clue, and yet at the same time as some oaks grow faster than others, the enormous trunk conceals the real answer.  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Welcome to Pershire - Big Tree Country / Perthshire has some of the most remarkable trees, woodlands and country gardens in Europe and is stunning at any time of year. Just a short trip can take you to Europe's oldest tree, the world's highest hedge, the sole survivor from Shakespeare's 'Birnam Wood' ... and it doesn’t stop there.  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

The Tree Council  The Tree Council is the lead tree campaigning charity, an umbrella body for over 180 UK organisations working to promote the importance of trees within the changing environment.  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

The Tree Register  A unique record of Notable and Ancient Trees in Britain and Ireland.   Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

The Heritage Trees of Scotland  Every country has its heritage trees - old trees, wide trees, tall trees, rare trees, "weird and wonderful" trees, and trees with historical and cultural significance. Scotland is blessed with an unusually rich heritage of such trees: perhaps the richest in the world. More than 130 of Scotland's most remarkable trees are stunningly presented in Heritage Trees of Scotland.  (excerpts from a book of the same title)  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Trees for Life  Help us restore the Caledonian Forest - one of the UK's most stunning native forests.  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Seven Man Made Wonders - Epping Forest, London  The 6,000 acres of Epping Forest is the largest public open space in the London area. This Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), was once a royal hunting ground with little regard for the rights of commoners. The land owners throughout the forest had the rights of timber from the trees, and the commoners only had the rights to the limbs of the trees for fuel and usable timber. So trees were "pollarded" or harvested by the paring of the upper tree growth.  Language: English. Country: Great Britain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009. 

The Fortingall Yew  is an ancient yew (Taxus baccata) in the churchyard of the village of Fortingall in Perthshire, Scotland. Various estimates have put its age at between 2,000 and 5,000 years; recent research into yew tree ages suggests that it is likely to be nearer the lower limit of 2,000 years. This still makes it the oldest known tree in Europe,The yew's once massive trunk (16 metres, or 52 feet in girth in 1769, of unknown original height) is split into several separate stems, giving the impression of several smaller trees.

The Queen Elizabeth Oak  in the grounds of the Royal Palace of Hatfield in Hertfordshire is said to be the location where Elizabeth I of England was told she was queen in 1558. 

Stoke Gabriel churchyard yew.  An ancient yew in the churchyard of the village of Stoke Gabriel, in Devon, England; said to be the oldest tree in England. 

The Major Oak  is a an ancient Pedunculate oak tree near the village of Edwinstowe in the heart of Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire, England. According to local folklore, it was Robin Hood's shelter where he and his merry men slept. It weighs an estimated 23 tons, has a waistline of 33 feet, and is about 800-1000 years old. There are several theories concerning why it became so huge and oddly shaped.

The Bowthorpe Oak  Britain's oldest oak tree is the Bowthorpe Oak in Bourne, Great Britain with an estimated age of over 1,000 years old. The tree is located on Bowthorpe Park Farm and visitors are welcome throughout the year. The Bowthorpe Oak is also featured in the Guinness Book of Records and was filmed for a short TV documentary about its size and astounding longevity.

Famous Trees  

Greece:  Forests and Trees

GREECE: FOREST-MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS  Greece is a mountainous land with rugged terrain and diverse geomorpho- logical formations, which fact, in conjunction with its geographical location and climatic environment, creates favorable conditions for the growth and proliferation of forests. A net-work of protected forests has been founded, in which the national forest parks of Parnitha, Sounion, Parnassos, Ainos, Iti, Prespes, Samaria, Vikos-Aoos, Olympos occupy a prominent place. In addition to their protective role, these constitute poles of attraction for visitors with varied interests.

Pindus Mountains mixed forests.  The Pindus Mountains mixed forests constitute a terrestrial ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency. It belongs to the biome of Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub, and to the Palearctic ecozone. The Pindus Mountains mixed forests are situated in the montane parts of the southern Balkans in the wide altitudinal range above 300-500 m. They cover Taygetus on the Peloponnesus in the south, occur in the mountain ranges of Central Greece (including the Pindus), eastern Albania and the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia, extend to the Drin River valley in the north and occupy 39,500 km² (15,300 sq. mi) in the three countries.

Pindus Mountains mixed forests (PA1217)  The Pindus Mountain range, extending across the countries of Greece, FYROM, and Albania, contains high, steep peaks, dissected by many deep canyons and other karstic landscapes. At higher elevations the forest is composed of conifer species, while at lower altitudes, mixed broadleaf species predominate. The region has an outstanding rate of floral endemism.

GREECE: FOREST-MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS  Listing and description of national parks in Greece. 

Balkan mixed forests (PA0404)  The Balkan mixed forests cover much of Bulgaria and bordering countries, excluding the Rodope Mountains. The vegetation of this ecoregion, especially that of the forests and grasslands, is Central European in character. The diversity of flora and fauna is relatively high compared to the rest of Europe and there are a high number of endemic plant species. Mixed oak forests are characteristic, with Quercus frainetto as the dominant tree species. Oak forests are interspersed with pine, silver fir (Abies alba) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests, woodland-pastures, shiblyak and grasslands (Ozenda 1994). High valleys and sheltered slopes feature forests dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica) and hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis and C. betulus).

Tree of Hippocrates  The Tree of Hippocrates is the plane tree (or platane, in Europe) under which, according to the legend, Hippocrates of Kos (considered the father of medicine) taught his pupils the art of medicine. Paul of Tarsus purportedly taught here as well.[1] The Platanus in Kos is an Oriental plane, with a crown diameter of about 12 meters, said to be the largest for a plane tree in Europe. Hippocrates' tree resides on the Platía Platanou (or "Square of the Platane"), in front of the Castle of Knights and next to the Gazi Hassan Mosque (erected in 1776) in the center of Kos town. The current tree is only about 500 years old but may possibly be a descendant of the original tree which allegedly stood there 2400 years ago, in Hippocrates' time.

Hungary: Forests and Trees

Hungary designates three new Ramsar sites  H.E. Miklós Persány, the Hungarian Minister for Environment and Water Management, hosted a special ceremony on 29 September 2006 at the new Ramsar site Nyirkai-Hany, part of the Fertö-Hanság National Park. This new site is remarkable for the fact that, where the public can now enjoy rich wetland wildlife and scenery, only a few years ago a monotone agricultural polder was all that remained from the, until the early 19th century, regularly inundated extensive Hanság floodplain, before the intensive drainage works started. With Dutch support, a wetland restoration project was able to create a spectacular new wetland area which provides a net contribution to maintaining and restoring biodiversity.

BBS News, Sunday, 12 August 2007.  News item -An ancient forest of cypress trees, estimated to be eight million years old, has been discovered in Hungary. Archaeologists found the 16 preserved trunks in an open cast coal mine in the north-eastern city of Bukkabrany.  Language: English.  Country: Hungary. Accessed:  January 14, 2009. 


Iceland:  Forests and Trees

Tree Picture Image Gallery by Harri Elíasson  Iceland has much beautiful scenery and landscape. In autumn the vivid colours of the vegetation, flowers and plants clash with the grey and brown of stone and lava. This gallery contains a few photos taken on an autumn day of flowers, trees, birds, mountain, lava and whatever else caught the eye of the photographer. Enjoy and feel free to use the photos as wallpaper. (Most images are 800x600).

Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland, the second largest island in the North-Atlantic Ocean (c. 103,000 square kilometers), is entirely volcanic and composed of basaltic rock. Weather is usually cold and wet, and blanket bogs are common. The surface is only partly covered with vegetation, the rest being bare rock, snow, and glaciers, which cover over eleven percent to the ecoregion. 

Iceland Vegetation Only about one-quarter of the total area of Iceland has a continuous plant cover, due mainly to the unfavourable climate, volcanic activity, glacier movements and overgrazing. About 470 species of native vascular plants are to be found, exceptionally low figure, and about half are thought to be glacial survivors from the Ice Age. The most common vegetation consists of various low-growing shrubs, especially heather, crowberry, bog whortleberry, bearberry, willow and dwarf birch.

Natural History of Iceland This site deals with the birds of Iceland, the plants of Iceland and the landscape of Iceland. It offers photographic guides to characteristic floral elements of Iceland, the birdlife of Iceland as well as landscape images of this remarkable island.


Ireland:  Forests and Trees

The Tree Council of Ireland  The Tree Council of Ireland is a voluntary non-governmental organisation which was formed in 1985, to promote the planting, care and conservation of trees in both urban and rural areas. It is the umbrella body linking together 50 organisations connected by their appreciation of trees, and it aims to foster a tree and wood culture among Irish people.

The lost woods of Killarney.  Old-growth oak forest in Ireland - includes related information Sierra, March-April, 1997 by Rebecca Solnit


Italy:  Forests and Trees

ITALY: FOREST PROFILE1  Italy occupies a long peninsula stretching from the Alps into the central Mediterranean Sea with a mountainous "backbone" where the forests are mostly located. Forest and other wooded land accounts for less than two fifths of the land area. Half is high forest, the rest coppice, often of indifferent quality. Because of its long north-south extension and wide range of altitudes, a large variety of forest types and of flora and fauna are found.  Language: English. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests (PA1211) Wild World Ecoregion Profile.  This ecoregion covers much of Italy, extending from the southeastern coast up to the northwestern sections of the country, even reaching into France. Wander through this ecoregion and you’ll see potholes and lakes left behind by the glaciers that carved this unique landscape. Along the coast, the forests consist primarily of wild olive-locust, European olive, and carob bean gum trees.  Language: English. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Italy's woodlands dying due to climate change by Michael Day in Milan. 17 Dec 2007.'s-woodlands-dying-due-to-climate-change.html  Italy's woodlands are already dying as climate change starts to bite in southern Europe, experts warn. A report represented to the Italian government said that eight out of 10 trees across Italy's varied ecosystems were already suffering from the effects of rising temperatures and diminishing rainfall.  Language: English. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

The Italian Cypress Tree - The Facts, Cultivation and History of One of Italy's Most Famous Trees.  One cannot think of Tuscany without thinking of the magnificent cypress tree, so quintessential and symbolic of the Tuscan landscape that it has adopted the name of "The Tuscan cypress tree. Although this is a somewhat fitting name, it is however grossly incorrect as its real place of origin was almost certainly Persia or Syria and was brought to the Tuscan area by the mysterious Etruscan tribes-people many thousands of years ago.   anguage: English. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Chestnut Tree of the One Hundred Horses. Trek Earth.  The more famous tree of Italy, easy to find because abundantly marked. It grows to the feet of the Etna and thanks to the fusion of various trees it indeed exhibits one chioma gigantic and of rare perfection of shapes. The enormous log is, in fact, constituted they give between great stalks of 12, 20 and 22 m of circumference that could be the polloni beginning from develop an enormous and ancient stock to you.  Language: English. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Chestnut Tree of One Hundred Horses (Italian: Castagno dei Cento Cavalli).  It is the largest and oldest known chestnut tree in the world. Located on Linguaglossa road in Sant'Alfio, on the eastern slope of Mount Etna in Sicily — only 8 km (5 miles) from the mountain's crater — it is generally believed to be 2,000 to 4,000 years old (4,000 according to the botanist Bruno Peyronel from Turin). It is a Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa, family Fagaceae). Guinness World Records has listed it for the record of "Greatest Tree Girth Ever", noting that it had a circumference of 57.9 m (190 ft) when it was measured in 1780. Above-ground the tree has since split into multiple large trunks, but below-ground these trunks still share the same roots.  Language: English. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Hundred Horse Chestnut Tree by Maria Mazzaro. Best of Scicily Magazine.  A few kilometers from the town of Sant'Alfio, on the lower slopes of Mount Etna, is the Hundred Horse Chestnut Tree ("Castagno dei Cento Cavalli"), believed to be the oldest tree in Sicily and perhaps the oldest of Europe.  Language: English. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Italian Gardens and the Olive Tree - Facts, History and Use of the Olive Tree in Italian Gardens.   European olive tree (Olea europaea) has come to symbolize, more than any plant, the essence of the Mediterranean region and it's gardens. Growing from 8 -12 meters tall in the poorest, rockiest of soils and depending on ferocious Mediterranean sunshine, the olive tree has truly won the battle of survival in the Mediterranean, growing indigenously from Lebanon to parts of Iran and Syria and even to certain areas of China. The olive can survive for 2,000 years or more, with the correct human care and cultivation and can provide one of the most respected substances ever derived from nature olive oil!  Language: English. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Alberi monumentali (Monumental Trees) by Stefano Rosini.  In questo spazio intendiamo fornire notizie e segnalazioni sui grandi alberi monumentali presenti sul nostro territorio nazionale Non pretendiamo di esaurire l'argomento con queste notizie, ma vogliamo segnalare i luoghi e le piante da noi direttamente visitati, in modo da offrire notizie di prima mano su questi splendidi monumenti naturali.  Language: Italian. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Alberi Monumentali d'Italia (Italian Monumental Trees) by G. Bortolotti  Nelle pagine dedicate agli "Alberi monumentali" sono elencati gli esemplari censiti dal Corpo forestale dello Stato nel 1982 che presentano le caratteristiche di maggiore interesse ambientale e culturale. In totale sono stati rilevati 1255 esemplari di cui 460 nelle Regioni del Nord Italia, 555 nelle Regioni del Centro e 240 nelle Regioni meridionali.   Language: Italian. Country: Italy. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.


Latvia:  Forests and Trees

Baltic Forest Mappin Project: Latvia.  Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia

Forest condition in Latvia  Description: Systematic assessment and observation (survey, inventory) of forests in Latvia has been underway since the 1700's. Latvia's forests are in the boreal/temperate forest zone and cover 44 percent of the country. Forest growing conditions are subdivided into five site class types: forests on dry mineral, wet mineral, wet peat, drained mineral, drained peat soils. The dominant tree species in Latvia are Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39.7 percent; Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), 20.6 percent; and common birch (Betula pendula Roth.), 28.4 percent. 

Forest Diversity  Forests are a characteristic element of Latvian landscape and cover 44% of the land area of the country. In forests, tree form the environment and store organic substances. Forest in Latvia is an ecologically stable ecosystem that secures a balanced maintenance of the environment. In Latvia, forests are diverse, their distribution and characteristic features differ quite greatly in various parts of the country. These differences are determined by climatic and edaphic (soil) conditions, as well in a time span - by human economic activities.

Liechtenstein:  Forests and Trees

Liechtenstein National Climate Report,2001 - Forestry Liechtenstein’s forested area is of great significance to the country. Forests cover 43 per cent of the country’s area, and this proportion is increasing. Sustainable forest management has therefore been afforded a high level of priority since as far back as the forestry regulations of 1865. Efforts in this area are aimed at sustainable forest management, conservation of existing forest stands and the promotion of nature-friendly forest management, on the basis of the current Forests Act (1991) and international conventions, inter alia, the 1993 Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe. For example, felling of timber is not permitted, and, if an exception is made, an area equivalent to that cleared must be afforested in the same place. Such efforts have made it possible in recent years to improve biological diversity in forest areas. Liechtenstein has an increasingly large area of forest reserves: one quarter of all its forested areas are reserves.

Lithuania:  Forests and Trees

Stelmužė Oak (Lithuanian: Stelmužės ąžuolas)  is an English (Pedunculate) oak tree which is growing in the former Stelmužė Manor park. It measures as much as 3.5 m in diameter and 13 m girth in its widest part; respectively 2.8 m. and 9.58 m at the waist level. The oak reaches 23 m of height with only side branches remaining alive. It is believed to be at least 1,500 years old, possibly, as many as 2,000 years old; this makes it the oldest oak in Lithuania and one of the oldest in Europe. However, exact measurements of age are difficult as the inner part of the trunk has been removed. The oak is a nature heritage object in Lithuania and is the best known tree in the country.

Forests of Lithuania, October 2005/updated August 2006  Forests in Lithuania – including plantations - cover 2,069,120 ha, making up 31% of the land area. Of this, 1,029,900 ha are state owned forests and 1,039,200 ha are privately owned, or forests which will be privatized in the near future. The largest proportion of forests in Lithuania, 70.8% of the total forest area, is actually made up of intensively managed pine and spruce forest, followed by 16.1% of protected forests, 11.9% of forest reserves/recreational forests, and 1.2% of strict nature reserves.

Forest Recreation In Lithuania. 35 pages. 

Lithuanian Forest Genetics Research many links. 

Stelmuze Oak - Lithuania  This oak tree is believed to be at least 1,500 years old. This makes it the oldest oak in Lithuania and one of the oldest in Europe. The oak is a nature heritage object in Lithuania and is the best known tree in the country. Stelmuze is an English (Pedunculate) oak tree is located in Manor Park. It measures as much as 3.5 m in diameter and 13 m girth in its widest part; respectively 2.8 m. and 9.58 m at the waist level. The oak reaches 23 m of height with only side branches remaining alive.

Luxembourg:  Forests and Trees

The Grünewald (Luxembourgish: Gréngewald)  is a forest in central Luxembourg, most of which is owned by the national government. Grünewald stretches through the communes of Niederanven, Steinsel, and Walferdange; the centre of the forest is situated 6 kilometres (4 miles) north-east of central Luxembourg City. As a result of its proximity to Luxembourg's capital city, it is a popular destination for tourism, leisure, and hospitality. Within the Grünewald are the sources of the Black Ernz and the White Ernz.

Luxembourg Certification Scheme for Sustainable Forest Management.  The Luxembourg Certification Scheme for Sustainable Forest Management described in the downloadable documents below submitted by PEFC Luxembourg a.s.b.l. was endorsed by the PEFC Council on 12 August 2005. 


Macedonia:  Forests and Trees

Forests in Macedonia  Forests reserves take up the area of approximately 1.000.000 hectares or 37% of the territory of Macedonia. Forest consist of deciduous forests, more specifically, 550,000 hectares of oak and beech forest, 83,000 hectares of evergreen forests mainly Austrian and Scotish pine, 288,000 hectares mixed deciduous forests, 8,000 hectares mixed evergreen forest and 47,000 hectares mixed deciduous and evergreen forests. There are 300 kinds of trees of which 16% are endemic.

Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests (PA1201)  Thousands of islands are sprinkled across this ecoregion, providing rocky, scrubby havens for many bird species, especially raptors. Falcons, vultures, and eagles can all be found along the coast of Turkey or Greece. This ecoregion stretches from the island of Corfu on the Ionian Sea to Turkey and into Macedonia. Greece has an extensive network of archipelagos containing more than 2,000 islands and a highly indented coastline with numerous peninsulas. Reed beds line coastal wetlands. Islands have oak trees with patches of olive and lime trees, and scrub habitat in the rocky cliff areas.

Malta:  Forests and Trees

Forests and Parks in Malta.  Malta has two small forests: One, near Rabat, is the Buskett Forest. In the midst of the forest there is the Verdala Palace, frowm the top of which one can see the whole circumference of the island. Originally built as a summer palace for the Grandmaster, it now serves as the summer residence of the President. Various species of trees such as pine, fir, oak and mulberry make this one of the most beautiful parks in Malta. The other forest is known as Miziep, in the north of the island. 

BUSKETT GARDENS By: Wilfred L. Camilleri  The Buskett Gardens are located in a fertile valley located to the south of Rabat and just east of Dingli...This is one of the greenest areas in Malta. Indigenous forests once covered Malta, but trees were cut down for shipbuilding in the era when galleons plied the Mediterranean waters. Perhaps the Buskett Gardens offer a glimpse of what Malta looked like in those days. 

Indigenous Trees of the Maltese Islands  Trees which were natives to the Mediterranean Islands are becoming very rare in the wild and some could be regarded as endangered species. Many of the Maltese indigenous trees has completely disappeared from their natural habitat. Fortunately some of these trees can still be found in parks, private gardens and as street plantations. Listed below are some of the most commonly known species. 

Nature Trust - Malta The uses and values of Biodiversity and the need of its conservation through ecosystem management.

Moldova:  Forests and Trees

Protecting Riverbank Forests of Moldova By: Dr. Aurel Lozan The Nistru (=Dniester) river, flowing towards the Black Sea in a long way of Moldavian-Ukrainian border, has always been a platform of human activity as settlements and battlefields during wars as indispensable economic relations to regional cooperation. It is the largest water supply in Moldova and important water supply in eastern Ukraine; it provides local people with various needs and goods, being at the same time a place for recreation. Its astonished landscapes are extremely attractive: slopes, canyon-shaped valleys, rocks, plateaus, gorges etc. The tragic faith of these forests began many centuries ago, when huge trees, notably oaks, were selectively cut off for shipbuilding industry.,54040.shtml 

Forests and the forestry sector  The Republic of Moldova is sparsely wooded and deficient in forest resources. The area of forest (325 000 ha) accounts for 9.9 percent of the land area, which is considerably less than in other European countries. The area of forest per capita is only 0.1 ha. Given the raggedness of the terrain, the low proportion of forest area, the high level of soil erosion, the aridity of the climate and the high population density, forests in Moldova are very important, both ecologically and socially. Two-thirds of the forest is available for wood supply, while most of the remainder is reserved for nature conservation and protection, particularly soil protection against erosion; land degradation is a major problem throughout the country.

Biodiversity Assessment for Moldova, August 2001.  52 pages. The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country located in southeastern Europe between Ukraine and Romania (see map below). It has an area of 33,843 sq km (slightly larger than Maryland in the United States) and a population of 4,430,654 (2000 estimate). Moldova is situated at the intersection of three biogeographic zones: the Central-European zone, the Euro-Asiatic zone, and the Mediterranean zone. Many species typical for each of these zones are at the limit of their natural range in Moldova. The country has a rich biota relative to its size, especially considering that the highest elevation reaches only 430 m. Today, natural ecosystems cover approximately 10 percent of Moldova. A significant proportion of this area is highly degraded. Agricultural lands cover 75 percent of the country. Native steppe and steppe-associated wet meadows have been systematically converted to cropland and pastures.

Monaco:  Forests and Trees

Monaco has 0% forestedland, although there are some trees in the Urban setting.  In addittion there is an Exotic Garden established in 1933.

Montenegro:  Forests and Trees

Montenegro's mountains, gorges and virgin forest beckon hikers,montenegros-mountains-gorges-and-virgin-forest-beckon-hikers.html  Zabljak/Kolasin  Montenegro - Many travellers may be familiar with Montenegro's Adriatic coast. Some may also know Lake Scutari, the largest lake in the Balkans. But Montenegro which means "black mountain" and the country's northern peaks are impressive. Hikers there can enjoy the seclusion of beautiful areas particularly in Durmitor and Biogradska national parks.  

NATIONAL PARKS - Biogradska Gora  Park is in mountainous region of Bjelasica that is located in central part of Montenegro between Rivers Tara and Lim and is surrounded with three municipalities: Kolasin, Berane and Mojkovac. Park is 5400 acres large and surrounded with mountains whose tops are over 2000 meters high and with nine glacier and one low land lakes, Lake Biograd. Seat of the Park is in Kolasin. Basic elements of the Park are: untouched forest with trees over five hundreds of years old, large mountain slopes and tops, glacier lakes at altitude of 1820 meters and easy accessible Lake located at very entrance to the Park. 

NATIONAL PARKS - Lake of Scadar (Skadarsko Lake)  Lake is located in Zeta – Scadar valley and is surrounded by mountains and 7 km far from Adriatic Sea. Two Thirds of Lake of Scadar is in Montenegro and rest one third is in Albania. Depending of level of water space of Lake varies from 530 to 370 km2 it is considered 44 km long and 14 km wide. Coast line is very cut especially in north – west side. Low valley of north part of Lake is often flooded.

NATIONAL PARKS - Lovcen  National Park Lovcen is located in rocky region of Dinara Alps. Slopes of Mountain Lovcen steeply, rise from coastal region of Budva and west part of Cetinje. Park is bordered on South with highway Budva – Cetinje and on North with old Kotor road. “Black Mountain”, after which Montenegro got its name, rises to 1749 meters of altitude. Park is 6220 acres large. Office of the Park is at Cetinje.

NATIONAL PARKS - Durmitor  The Park is located at wide mountain region in North West of Montenegro, limited by Rivers Piva and Tara between which there are 23 mountain tops over 2300 meters of altitude. Park is 39000 acres large and includes 82 kilometers of canyon of the Tara with altitude of 1600 meters above level of the River. Office of the Park is in Zabljak. There are 17 glacier Lakes in the Park as the highest top in Montenegro – Bobotov kuk (2522 m). Since 1980 Park and canyon of Tara are under protection of UNESCO. 1977 canyon was proclaimed world ecological reserve. Seven zones of Park are among special protected areas (ICUM): · Uncut forest of fir · Black pine at Crna poda.

National Forest and Forest Land Administration Policy, First Draft, February 2008.  56 pages. From the geographic point of view, Montenegro is a very diverse country, and although it is territorially rather small, it extends over two biological and geographic regions in Europe: Mediterranean and Alpine. The development of current forest eco-systems in Montenegro started during the Ice Age, and due to southern position and diversity of habitats in the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula, many endemic plants survived such as Macedonian Pine, White Bark Pine, Black Pine, and other. In the late Neolithic period, as elsewhere in the Mediterranean, humans started influencing significantly the nature and forests.

Forest and Forest Products Country Profile: Serbia and Montenegro  106 pages. Geneva, 23 August 2005 - Geneva Timber and Forest Discussion Paper 40, Forest and Forest Products Country Profile: Serbia and Montenegro continues a series of country forest and forest products profiles, which provide general forest sector information for a particular country. The forest and forest products sector in Serbia and Montenegro, in common with many Balkan countries, was hard hit by the political and economic upheaval that occurred in the region, and suffered severely as a consequence.

Netherlands:  Forest and Trees

The Anna Frank Tree - An Interactive Monument Anne Frank often looked from the attic window at the chestnut tree behind the secret annex. She wrote about it in her diary. Now, the more than 150 year old tree is diseased, but online it will live on. Leave your leaf in the virtual chestnut tree, forward it and keep Anne Frank’s ideals alive.  Language: English. Country: Netherlands.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Bijzondere Bomen in Brabant (Exceptional Trees in Brabant) by Han van Meegeren Language: Dutch. Country: Netherlands.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Bomengids (Northern European Tree Guide) by Hans-Cees Speel.  Tree identification guide.  Language: Dutch, English. Country: Netherlands.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Bomenkennis (Tree Wisdom) by Leo Goudzwaard and Paula van Ling  Bomenkennis verzorgt professionele cursussen over soortenherkenning, toepassing van bomen en de problematiek rond het planten van bomen. Wilt u uw kennis opfrissen of uitbreiden, individueel of een in-company training, u bent bij ons aan het goede adres voor een bomencursus. We adviseren u ook graag over toepassing van boomsoorten in bos, stad en landschap: welke soorten en cultivars zijn het beste in uw ontwerp.  Language: Dutch. Country: Netherlands.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

BoomBasTik (Fantastic Trees) by Bas van Griensven  Language: Dutch. Country: Netherlands.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Great Oaks of Europe  by Jeroen Pater, Jeroen Philippona and Tomasz Niechoda.  Language: Various. Country: Netherlands.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Monumental Bomen in Europe by Jeroen Pater Welkom op mijn website. Hier vindt u informatie over monumentale bomen in Europa. Er worden een aantal van Europa's oudste en indrukwekkendste bomen beschreven.  Language: Various. Country: Various. Accessed: January 15, 2009. 

Oude Bomen vanuit Zutphen bekeken (Old Trees in the Netherlands & Europe) by Jeroen Philippona.  The Netherlands is better known for its flowers as for old trees. Still there are quite a few beautiful and old trees in this small country, especially in the eastern part. The Dutch Tree Society ( De Bomenstichting ) keeps a register of old and monumental specimens. I'll show you some of them in the surroundings of my home-town Zutphen in the province of Gelderland on the next pages.  Language: Dutch, English. Country: Netherlands.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Stem der Bomen (Mythology of Trees) by Brigit Kahlert.  Language: Dutch. Country: Netherlands.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Norway:  Forests and Trees

NORWAY - FORESTS AND FORESTRY  Forests and other wooded land cover approximately 37 per cent, or 119,000 km2, of the Norwegian mainland. Of this, almost 23 per cent, or approximately 72,000 km2 is regarded as productive forest. 

Natural forest heritage in Norway By Arnodd Håpnes, forest officer. WWF-Norway, March 2003.  3 pages. Central Norway is the only place where the Taiga meets the Atlantic sea. This is the European boreal rain forest, unique in its distribution and species diversity, which means that Norway has an international responsibility for protection of these forests. It’s not only the swarms of mosquitoes that distinguish the boreal rain forest. Climatic factors and a specialized epiphytic lichen flora give characteristics to these forests.

The Rainforest Foundation, Norway   - Regnskogsfondet in Norwegian - was formed in 1989 after the musician Sting and the Indian chief Raoni came to Norway as part of a campaign against the destruction of the world's rain forests. Our main focus is in Brazil where we support 8 projects. Since 1997 we have also become engaged in Asia, where we now support projects in Indonesia, Malaysia and New Guinea. 

Poland:  Forests and Trees

Białowieża Primaeval Forest,  known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza Białowieska in Poland, is an ancient woodland straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km (43 mi) north of Brest. It is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the immense primeval forest which once spread across the European Plain.

Bialowieza Primaeval Forest, Poland, Belarus, July 11th, 2006.  Bialowieza Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Image:Ltspkr.png Puszcza Białowieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. It is the only remaining part of the once immense forest spreading across the European Plains.

Oaks of Puszcza Bialowieska by Tomasz Niechoda.  The Bialowieza Forest is the biggest tree(of monumental sizes) cluster in Europe. Among the trees growing there the biggest sizes are reached by oaks and this site is dedicated to them. The Bialowieza Oaks impress with soaring shape, habit diversity, majesty & age. The oldest ones sprouted in the times of Władysław Jagiełło, and maybe even of Kazimierz Wielki. They are parts of the Bialowieza Forest - world-class humankind heritage - and that's why it is worth documenting their lasting.  Language: Polish, English.  Country: Portugal.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Bartek Oak - Poland  One of the most famous trees of Poland is the Bartek Oak. It is 625 year-old and has a height of 30-meter tall and measures 13.5 meters in girth at its base. Its crown spreads about 40 meters. Under the Bartek oak tree, King Casimir III is known to have been pictured as holding his court. It is also told that Jan III Sobieski rested under this tree on his way back from the Battle of Vienna, and hid a Turkish saber, an arquebus and a bottle of wine inside it. The old oak is in decline.   

Bartek  is an ancient oak tree in Poland. It grows in Zagnańsk near Kielce in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. Its age, long estimated at up to 1200 years, has recently been established at 625 years, with a corer used to extract a sample for proper counting of the growth rings. There are three older oaks in Poland, though none so famous as Bartek. The 30-metre tall Bartek measures 13.5 metres in girth at its base. Its crown spreads about 40 metres. Under the Bartek oak tree, King Casimir III is known to have been pictured as holding his court. 

Portugal:  Forests and Trees

Makeover on the cards for Portugal’s cork forests. 04 Dec 2008. World Wildlife Federation. Lisbon, Portugal: The future of many cork oak forests, identified by WWF as an international conservation priority, has been freshened up by the launch of a new partnership in Portugal between WWF and one of the world’s leading health and beauty specialists.  Language: English.  Country: Portugal.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Deforestation in Portugal.  41.3% —or about 3,783,000 hectares—of Portugal is forested. Of this, 1.5% —or roughly 55,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest. Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Portugal gained an average of 48,400 hectares of forest per year.  Language: English.  Country: Portugal.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Portuguese Forestry Portuguese forestry is described giving the main facts from activities related with forests in Portugal.  Language: English.  Country: Portugal.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

World Resources Institute. EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal.  Forests, Grasslands and Drylands COUNTRY PROFILE - Portugal.  Language: English.  Country: Portugal.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Romania:  Forests and Trees

Forest Management in Romania and Bulgaria - IKEA  The purpose of the project is to achieve responsible forest management and widespread multi-stakeholder based forest certification in Romania and Bulgaria. The primary focus of the project will be on Romania. In addition, some work will be carried out in Bulgaria, and a watching brief will be maintained over Ukraine with a view to the allocation of resources to that country, should conditions permit.

Virgin Forests in Romania.  61 pages. During the period 2001-2004 a virgin forests project was carried out by the Royal Dutch Society for Nature Conservation (KNNV) in co-operation with Romanian Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS). Other project partners were IUCNEuropean Office and independent European experts on forestry. The main goal of the project was to identify the importance and the actual presence of virgin forests in Romania. Romania is considered as one of the European countries with the highest presence of virgin forests in Europe. The future of these forests is under a severe pressure because of human activities like cutting of forests and construction of new infrastructure.

ROMANIA: Last Intact Forest Under Threat By Claudia Ciobanu.  BUCHAREST, Jul 8 (IPS) - Romanian environmentalists have launched a campaign to speed up creation of a national agency for protected areas (ANAP), which the government has been postponing since 2005. In the absence of a proper administrative body, valuable natural sites around the country, including the last remaining intact forest landscape in temperate Europe, are being damaged in the quest for development.

The main protected virgin forests in Romania  The largest part of the governmental responsibilities for nature protection and management belong to the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (MWFEP) and the branches or agencies affiliated with the MWFEP. The Commission for the Protection of Nature Monuments of the Romanian Academy is the legal scientific authority for nature conservation and protected areas. 

Russia, European:  Forests and Trees

Global Forest Watch  Nearly a quarter of the world’s current forest area is in Russia. Russia has retained about two thirds of its estimated original forest area. Given their magnitude, Russia’s forests play an important role in the world’s climate. A new study by GFW Russia shows that only about a quarter of the forest zone of Russia is still in large blocks of road-less wilderness – so called intact forest landscapes (also known as frontier forests). This is less than the previous estimate of more than two fifths. 

Atlas of Russia’s Intact Forest Landscapes.  Approximately 289 million hectares (26 percent of the forest zone) remain as large, intact forest landscapes in Russia. Approximately 5 percent of the intact forest landscapes are in areas with special protection at the federal level. Eastern Siberia is the part of Russia that is least affected by modern land use, with 39 percent of the forest zone still intact, followed by the Russian Far East (31 percent intact) and Western Siberia (25 percent intact). European Russia is the most affected (9 percent intact). 

Добро пожаловать на интернет-сайт FOREST.RU!  Наш сайт посвящен российским лесам, их охране и устойчивому использованию. Здесь Вы можете познакомиться с точкой зрения российских неправительственных природоохранных организаций (НПО) на наиболее важные проблемы лесов России и сопредельных государств, с позицией официальных представителей государственных структур, комментариями и мнениями учёных. (I don't have a clue - but it looked official)

Russia’s Boreal Forests  4 pages.The Russian national protected area system includes:
• Approximately 100 zapovedniks – strict nature reserves meeting the category 1 criteria of the IUCN classification of protected areas – covering about 330,000 km2 (about 1.4 per cent of the country’s otal area);
• 36 national parks, totaling over 6.8 million hectares;
• 69 federal zakazniks, or wildlife refuges;
• more than 3,000 regional zakazniks;
• more than 10,000 nature monuments, including 28 of federal importance;
• more than 40 regional nature parks; and,
• hundreds of other protected areas ranging from a forested area in the middle of Moscow to large tracts of Siberia and the Arctic. These range in size from 2.31 km2 (570 acres) to 4,692 km2 (1,876.8 mile2). The state plans to create 15 new areas by 2010.

Last Intact Forest Landscapes of Northern European Russia  This first attempt at identifying boreal forest areas of minimal human disturbance (intact) using high-resolution satellite imagery reveals that only 14 percent or 32 million hectares of the boreal or northern forests of European Russia remain. Download Reports, Charts & Graphs 

San Marino:  Forests and Trees

San Marino Factbook  arable land: 17%. permanent crops: NA%, permanent pastures: NA%, forests and woodland: NA%, other: 83% (1993 est.) 

Serbia:  Forests and Trees

Forest and Forest Products Country Profile: Serbia and Montenegro  106 pages. Geneva, 23 August 2005 - Geneva Timber and Forest Discussion Paper 40, Forest and Forest Products Country Profile: Serbia and Montenegro continues a series of country forest and forest products profiles, which provide general forest sector information for a particular country. The forest and forest products sector in Serbia and Montenegro, in common with many Balkan countries, was hard hit by the political and economic upheaval that occurred in the region, and suffered severely as a consequence.

Institutional development and capacity building for the National Forest Programme of Serbia.  One of the main goals of the project was to formulate the Forest Policy document. This document would deal with development goals of forestry sector in Serbia, and this policy document should also be the ground base for the formulation of new Forest Law of Republic of Serbia. Now you can download the document: Forest policy of Serbia 2004 –draft-, which is prepared following analysis of forestry sector in Serbia, performed in past two years; trends in European forestry; conclusions from many meetings and workshops that national and international consultants had with private forest owners, representatives of state forestry sector, scientific and educational institutions, wood processing industry, environmental government and non-government organizations and other stakeholders in forestry. 

Slovakia:  Forests and Trees

Forests of Slovakia  Forests cover approximately two million hectares, or 40% of the Slovak Republic. Of these, about 60% are state forests and 40% non-state forests. Of the latter, more than 50% belong to associations. The remaining are private, municipal and church forests. Although forests are concentrated in a small area, a wide range of original tree species have been preserved. Broad-leaved species predominate in the lowlands and hill territories of the south and east. There are mixed forests, with coniferous species dominating, in the mountains of the central and northern areas. In the mountainous areas, mixed stands of spruce, fir and beech prevail. 

Save the Worlds Forests - Slovakia  Over the last few hundred years attitudes towards old growth, pristine forest have changed. Once regarded as an undesirable obstacle in the progress of modern civilization it is now a valued part of the country's natural and cultural heritage. TAt present there are 74 forest reserves across the country covering 14,630 hectares (36,151 acres). However not all remnants of virgin forest have been designated as protected areas and recent estimates indicate that in total up to 20,000 hectares (49,000 acres) of virgin forest remain in Slovakia." There are virgin forests situated in the Slánske and Bukovké mountains.. 

Badin Primeval Forest ttp://  This reserve is located in Central Slovakia, at an altitude of 700-850 m., in an area of 150 hectare with an additional 23,7 hectare buffer zone. The area saves a climax stage forest ecosystem in beech vegetation zone. The typical tree species are beech and a bit of spruce. The Badinsky Prales virgin forest is located out of its native distribution. Optimum phase, phase of decay an and growing developmental phases of European primeval forests are represented. While fir achieves an age of 350-450 years, beech reaches only 210-230, so 2 beech generations develop for one generation fir. The biggest fir is 148 cm in diameter and 46 m tall.

Dynamics of forest health status in Slovakia from 1987 to 1994, Author: Oszlanyi, Julius, Date: 1998.  Description: Slovakia is a mountainous and forested country (40.6 percent forest cover) in central Europe and has a large variety of vegetation zones, forest types, and a rich diversity of forest tree species. The most important tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), oak species (Quercus sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), poplars and willows (Populus L. sp., Salix L. sp.), and other hardwood broadleaves. On the basis of results of the Forest Health Monitoring System from 1987 to 1994, the scientific information is presented for the following parameters: defoliation, discoloration, percentage of tree number in classes of damage, and percentage of salvage cut in the total annual cut. 

Eastern Europe Forest Report, compiled by Tom Fullum, 1/24/96  Forests of special concern in Slovakia include the Cergov 
Mountains located in northeastern Slovakia. A 30 km long main ridge reaches altitude of 1000 meters above sea. Except for small spots, Cergov is not protected. Native forest stands are beech, and mixed beech and fir with some maple (and) The Vychodne Karpaty Protected Landscape Area is located in eastern Slovakia bordering Poland and the Ukraine. The Vychodne Karpaty forests cover an area of 668 km2 with a buffer zone of 301 km2. Approximately 20% are special purpose forests and only part of them are completely protected.

Biosphere Reserve Information Poland / Slovakia / Ukraine EAST CARPATHIANS  The East Carpathians is a transboundary mountain biosphere reserve with significant value for biodiversity conservation in Central Europe. Within the biosphere reserve, four distinct vegetation types are found: beech forest (Fagetum sylvaticae), beech-fir forest (Fageto-Abietum), dwarf-shrublands with green alder (Alnetum viridis), and a belt of treeless ‘poloniny’ - subalpine meadows dominated by Prata subalpina. 

Primeval Forests  Slovak primeval forests have long enjoyed a high reputation across European forestry circles. Perhaps the best known among them is the Dobročský Primeval Forest...Other famous primeval forests are Badín, Stužica and Vihorlat to name just a few of them.

Slovenia:  Forests and Trees

I Feel Slovenia - Natural and CVultural Heritage.  Slovenia is a heavily wooded country with protected forests and areas of primeval forest. Throughout Slovenia, there are forest reserves, and primeval forests are still to be found in Kočevski Rog, on Gorjanci, on Pohorje . . . Individual protected trees are also natural assets that create unique landscape views with their magnificence. Protected forests, trees, and the indigenous flora and fauna are often a part of the landscape parks that preserve the heritage of individual areas.  Language: English. Country: Slovenia. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Slovenia Forest Service Mission: Preservation and close-to-nature development of Slovenian forests and of all their functions for their sustainable and good management and use as well as nature conservation in forest space for the good of present and future generations. 

Forests in Slovenia  Slovenia is a land of forests. The most typical feature of the Slovenian landscape is its forests, which cover as much as 58% of the national territory (report of the Forest Service of Slovenia for 2004). In terms of relative forest cover Slovenia is third in the European Union, after Finland and Sweden. The forest area in Slovenia is expanding through the growing-over of abandoned farmland, primarily meadow and pasture in more remote parts of the countryside.

Spain:  Forests and Trees

Spain Forest/Market Profile.   With 14.4M hectares of forest cover, Spain is the fourth largest country in Europe in terms of forest resources (following Sweden, Finland and France, but excluding the Russian Federation). Forests – which occupy almost 29 percent of the country’s total land area – are increasing by about 86,000 ha per year, both through natural expansion and through the forest plantation program that has been under way for more than 50 years, with soil protection and erosion prevention as its main aims. 94 pp. Language: English.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Sustainable management of Mediterranean forests in Spain by G. Montero and I. Cañellas A description of the salient features of Spanish Mediterranean forests and explanations justifying the application of forest management.  Language: English.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Summer forest fires ravage Spain, 08 Aug 2006. World Wildlife Federation.  Fires are a major threat to forests throughout the Mediterranean. Rome, Italy – A wave of forest fires across north-western Spain, largely a result of arson, has been responsible for several deaths and huge economic losses equalling €500 million, according to WWF. Despite efforts by local authorities, there have already been some 10,500 fires in Galicia this year, destroying more than 42,000ha of forest. About 84 per cent of the fires were intentional.  Language: English.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

World Resources Institute: EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal. 2006.  Forests, Grasslands and Drylands: COUNTRY PROFILE - Spain.   Language: English.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Spain's Trees of the Year, by Bonnie Alter, London on 12.30.08.  This lovely tree has been sheltering the square in the town of Pareja Spain for almost 500 years. It was so famous that it was mentioned in a 1946 travel book: "They call it lady oak because it is rounded, full-bodied, matriarchal, an elm as old perhaps as the oldest stone in the town."  Language: English.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Leyendas Vivas Proyecto de catalogocion, consevacion, y divulgacion de los arboles mas singulares de la Peninsula Iberico.  Language: Spanish.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  Translation to English:
  Country: Spain.  Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Iberia Nature Iberianature  is the principal English-language source of information on the Net on the nature and geography of Spain. Monumental Trees and La Encina.  80% of the monumental trees in Spain at the turn of the 20th century no longer exist.   Language: English.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Spain’s giant trees By: Bernabé Moya , Friday, August 29, 2003. ThinkSpain.  How to be a monument and live to tell the tale... In the shelter of their branches centuries of history, feelings and emotions are harboured; they are infused with a wisdom which has made them immortal. These are the giant trees, whose size and rarity, and the affection they receive from humans, make them special. Spain has a greater wealth of native trees than any other country in Europe.  Language: English.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

The Dendrochronological Signal of pine Trees(Pinus sp.) in Spain. Tree Ring Bulletin, Vol. 51, 1991. Language: English.  Country: Spain. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Wilkimedia Commons 

Ancient Dragon Tree The Dragon Tree at IcodIn Icod stands a famous dragon tree (Dracaena draco), said to be thousands of years old. In fact, no study seems to have confirmed such longevity for the tree, which is more likely to have an age in the hundreds of years. In any case, it is a tree that never goes unnoticed, and it has always been the symbol of Icod.It would perhaps be exaggerated to say that Icod owes its progress to the tree,[citation needed] since its valley is a fertile and agriculturally rich comarca, as shown by the town's full name, Icod de los Vinos (Icod of the Wines).  Language: English.  Country: Spain (Canary Islands). Accessed:  January 15, 2009.  See also: 

Dragon Tree, Canary Islands. 15 of the World’s Most Exotic & Amazing Trees by Steph on December 10th, 2008.  The Dragon Tree at Icod de los Vinos in Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands, is quite an unusual specimen. It has been said to be between 650 and 1,500 years old, though experts can’t say for sure since it doesn’t have a single trunk, but rather many small trunks that cling together as they grow upward.

Gernikako Arbola ("the tree of Gernika" in Basque)  is an oak tree that symbolizes traditional freedoms for the Biscayan people, and by extension for the Basque people as a whole. The Lords of Biscay (including kings of Castile and Carlist pretenders to the throne) swore to respect the Biscayan liberties under it, and the modern Lehendakari of the Basque Country swears his charge there.

Sweden:  Forests and Trees

Eklandskapet (The Oak Landscape) by Claes Svedlindh.  Eklandskapsfonden bildades 1994 och ska verka för ett långsiktigt bevarande av natur- och kulturvärdena i Eklandskapet inom Linköpings kommun. Language: Swedish.  Country: Sweden.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Jaettetraed i Sverige (Giant Trees in Sweden) by Naturcentrum.  Tack till alla er som ställt era uppgifter till förfogande – ett särskilt stort tack till Mats Boman (Stockholm och Gotland), Kjell Antonsson (Östergötland), Åke Carlsson (Västergötland), Hans Sandberg (Södermanland), Lars Olof Arvids (Bohuslän), Per Blomberg (Skåne), Gillis Aronsson (Uppland), Sven Hernborg (Hallands Väderö m.m.), Jan Karlsson (Höö) och Gun Lindberg (Västervik) och Per Östman. De fina, tecknade illustrationerna har framställts av Martin Holmer och Nils Forshed.  Language: Swedish.  Country: Sweden.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Fotoutställningen Jaettetraed (Gallery of Giant Trees) by Patrik Nygren. Language: Swedish.  Country: Sweden.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

World's oldest tree discovered in Sweden.  By Roger Highfield, Science Editor. Last Updated: 11:18PM GMT 10 Nov 2008. The tree has rewritten the history of the climate in the region The world's oldest tree has been found in Sweden, a tenacious spruce that first took root just after the end of the last ice age, more than 9,500 years ago. The tree has rewritten the history of the climate in the region, revealing that it was much warmer at that time and the ice had disappeared earlier than thought. Language: English.  Country: Sweden.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Old Tjikko  is a Norway spruce and, at 9,550 years old, the world's oldest individual clone-tree. It stands 5 metres (16 ft) tall and is located on Fulu Mountain of Dalarna province in Sweden.[1] For thousands of years, the tree appeared in a stunted shrub formation (also known as a krummholz formation) due to the harsh extremes of the environment in which it lives. During the warming of the last century, the tree has sprouted into a regular tree formation. Leif Kullman, Professor of Physical Geography at Umeå University, has attributed this growth spurt to global warming, and given the tree its nickname "Old Tjikko" after his late dog.

SWEDEN - FORESTS AND FORESTRY  Sweden extends from the southern Baltic Sea to north of the Arctic Circle. The country has an area of 450,000 km (174,000 sq. mi.) and is 1,600 km long, equal to the distance from the southern tip of Sweden to southern Italy. 
Despite its northerly location, the climate is fairly mild and temperate, due to the warm Atlantic Gulf Stream. Annual precipitation varies from 1,500 mm in the country's western portions to 300 mm in the eastern portions. The growing season lasts 240 days in the south and 100 days in the north. 

Forests of Sweden 

Swedish Forest Agency  The forest is one of Sweden’s most important natural resources and has a central role in an ecologically sustainable society. The utilisation of the forest resource must occur in a manner that maintains both productivity and biodiversity with renewal and vigour without damaging other ecosystems. 

Assessing the non-timber value of old-growth forests in Sweden  This paper estimates the public benefit of preserving 126 000 hectares of old-growth forest in the sub-mountainous region of Sweden through contingent valuation. The primary benefit of this in-situ conservation of biodiversity is the forest’s relative diversity and richness, which provides important habitat for threatened species. Thus, benefits arise predominantly from nonuse values. 

The Swedish National Inventory of Forests (RIS)  is a nationwide inventory of forests and soils in Sweden. The main purpose with the NFI is to describe the state of and changes in forest resources in Sweden - growth and cuttings for instance. However, there are numerous fields of application. For example, the NFI is a powerful resource for environmental monitoring. The NFI is a part of the Official Statistics of Sweden. 

Mapping The Boreal Forest  ScienceDaily (Oct. 29, 2008) — How best to map ‘boreal’ or northern forest with spaceborne radar is the focus of an ESA campaign currently underway in northern Sweden. By answering this question, the campaign addresses one of the key objectives of the candidate Earth Explorer BIOMASS mission.

Disappering Old Growth Forest in Sweden - Photography by Björn Olin Sun - October 21, 2007  Sadly I can contribute to this subject too, since Sweden's forestry corporations are quickly turning a once a beautiful land of old-growth forests full of life and diversity into clearcuts. Nearly all Sweden's virgin forests are gone. What is left is the old growth forests and those are being erased now. And this under the umbrella of FSC (Forest Stewardship Council). In a few years the last of the last will be gone. With those forests many spieces will cease to exist too. Swedish government has just declared that they will not fulfil the European Community goals of protecting the forests. At the same time they also reduced the funding for forest protection. 

Rumskalla Oak - Sweden A huge oak with an estimated age of 850 to 1,000 year named Rumskalla is one of the few remaining oldest of Sweden. The huge Rumskalla Oak in Sweden is located near the village of Vimmerby, hometown of Astrid Lindgren, author of Pippi Langstroem. The gnarled oak has a large hollow trunk of 14.4 meters in circumference regarded as the biggest in Europe.

Switzerland:  Forests and Trees

Internationales Baum Archiv by the International Tree Archive Foundation.  Das Internationale Baum-Archiv (IBA) wurde 1975 von der Zürcher Berufsfotografin Verena Eggmann (1946-1997) als fotografische und dokumentarische Arbeit begonnen und wird seit 1997 von Bernd Steiner und Silvia Haubensak Steiner weitergeführt.  Country: Various.. Accessed:  January 15, 2009.

Virgin Forests  Switzerland has three virgin forests, where there has been no human intervention. They are in Bödmeren in Canton Schwyz, Derborence in Canton Valais and Scatlé in Canton Graubünden. All three have remained untouched because of their position on steep and inaccessible slopes and are natural reserves with limited access for research only. 

Der Bödmeren-Urwald  Umfangreiche Untersuchungen haben gezeigt: In einem Kernbereich des Bödmerenwaldes existiert rund 150 ha primärer, unberührter Fichten-Urwald. Umgeben wird dieser Kernbereich von 200 ha zwar forstlich und alpwirtschaftlich genutzten, aber noch sehr naturnahen Wäldern. 70 ha des Kerngebietes sind heute als Reservat geschützt.

Derborence: The Virgin Forest in Valais-Central  A natural disaster in the 18th century made this landscape what it is today. Any humans and animals that happened to be in the area were killed by the tons of rocks that came crashing down on the area from "Devil's Rock". The local author C. F. Ramuz wrote about this dramatic event which took place in 1714. It was also made into a film, shot on location, of course. In the 300 years that have passed since the disaster, the area has been transformed into a natural forest that is protected by its sheer inaccessibility. Trees grew in between the great limestone blocks, and thanks to surveillance in and around the area, a rare Swiss virgin forest has now occupied the area. Derborence is a rugged paradise made for ecotourism.


Turkey - Listed as a Middle Eastern Country


Ukraine:  Forests and Trees

Forests and Forestry in Ukraine  Nature Reserves in Ukraine 

Yalta Mountain Forest Reserve  The Yalta Mountain Forest Reserve was established in 1973, covering a large area of land ranging from the Aiya Cape, along the Black Sea coast, to the mountainous region called Ayu-Dag. The Yalta Mountain Reserve was first formed in an attempt to provide protection specifically to forest ecosystems that occur naturally in the mountains. These forests are usually made up of trees like the beech, oak, juniper, hornbeam and the Crimean pine.

PRIMEVAL BEECH FORESTS OF THE CARPATHIANS, SLOVAKIA / UKRAINE.  19 pages. The Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians is a transnational serial property comprising ten separate components (see Table 1). These components stretch along a 185 km axis from the Rakhiv Mountains and the Chornohirskyi Range in the Ukraine, west along the Polonynian Ridge (and across the national border), to the Bukovské Vrchy and Vihorlat Mountains in Slovakia. The nominated properties are surrounded by buffer zones (not nominated) and ecological “connecting corridors” (also not nominated).

WWF Ukraine project leader wins Whitley Award for work in 'jungles' of Transcarpathia  
Ukrainian conservationist and WWF project leader Dr. Bohdan Prots has won the UK’s Whitley Award for conservation for his work identifying the hidden forest species in Eastern Europe’s little-known “jungles” of the Transcarpathia, in the western Ukraine...Flooded forests are now extremely rare in Europe and are among the most endangered habitats in the world. The flooded forests of Transcarpathia are an outstanding relic of the forests, which have been reduced to only a few patches. They are part of a larger landscape in the upper Tisza River Basin that is a priority for WWF's conservation activities in the region. The location of these forests, close to the western border of the former Soviet Union, has effectively restricted any large-scale investigation of their wildlife and sustainable use. 

Carpathian montane forests (PA0504)  The Carpathian Mountains form an arc across Central and Eastern Europe. It provides habitat for the largest populations in Europe of brown bear, wolf and lynx, as well as over one third of all European plant species. The mountains are a vital watershed for Central Europe, feeding the major rivers in the area. A bridge between Europe’s northern and southwestern forests, the range serves as a corridor for the dispersal of plants and animals throughout Europe.

Short Information about Ukraine and Forests.  The total area of Ukrainian forest fund constitutes 10.8 mln.ha, 9,4 mln.ha of it is covered with forest. So the percentage of forest cover is 15.6% of a total territoryof Ukraine. 

Vatican City

Vatican Gardens The Vatican Gardens date back to medieval times when vineyards and orchards extended to the north of the Apostolic Palace. In the 1279 Pope Nicholas II enclosed this cultivated area with walls. Today these walls are no longer standings owing to the site's transformation at the beginning of the 16th century. Two new courtyards were created: the Belvedere and the "Pigna" or Pine Cone. 

The Vatican Gardens (Italian: ‘Giardini Vaticani’)  in Vatican City are urban gardens and parks which cover more than half of the Vatican territory. Located in the South and Northeast, some buildings such as Radio Vatican are embedded within. The surface amounts to c. 20 Hectares (200,000 m²) and covers most of the Vatican Hill. The highest point reaches 60 metres ASL. Stone walls bound the area in the North, South and West. The gardens and parks were established during the Renaissance and Baroque era.