Tree Measurement Bibliography: Discussion   Edward Frank
    Aug 05, 2003 18:47 PDT 

Charlie, Bob, and Lee

I would like to see a formal bibliography of scholarly papers
relevant to tree measuring published on the website as a resource for
people interested in the field and interested in using out tree measurement
data. It would certainly boost the scientific profile of our and
legitimize what we are doing to a wider audience. It might spur additional
research or data uses by people outside our current organization.

Mensurationists Cogbill
Aug 04, 2003 17:45 PDT 

Bob, Ed, Gary, Larry, Lee, and other mensurationists,

    If ENTS expressed compulsion is "to measure very accurate(ly) tree
dimensions" then it is practicing the art of tree size measurement or "tree
mensuration". No need to coin a new word for the exact job description of
the mensurationist. This well established applied field (with the recent
addition of laser technology) overlaps the disciplines of "plant allometry",
"tree dimensional analysis", "log scaling", and/or "biomass/volume
production (and productivity) estimation", as well as "tree morphology".
The latter interest gives rise to the previously noted "dendromorphology",
which mostly applies to the study of the shape, more commonly branching
pattern , canopy form, and leaf array, rather than exclusively the size of
the tree or its trunk. Note that each of these disciplines has a deep
technical literature (for a quick introduction see Greehill (1881)
"Determination of the greatest height consistent with stability that a
vertical pole or mast can be made, and of the greatest height to which a
tree of given proportions can grow" in Proc Cambr. Philos. Soc. IV Part II,
p. 65-73; Niklas's (1994, U Chicago Press) "Plant Allometry"; Zimmerman &
Brown's (1980, Springer-Verlag) "Trees structure and function"; various
Procs of the Inter. Union of Forest Research Orgs. (IUFRO) Biomass Studies
for S4.01 Mensuration, Growth and Yield, "Working Party on the mensuration
of the forest biomass"; or any number of studies on the dimensional analysis
of eastern species [for example, Whittaker et al (1974) The Hubbard Brook
Ecosystem Study: forest biomass and production Ecol Monogr. 44:233-252]).
Fortunately the form of the various "models" of tree dimensions is straight
forward (either deductions from simple geometric shapes or more commonly
sampling with regression estimation) and most of the statistical
parameterization has already been done (with the exception of extreme points
which unduly influence the coefficients in regression, especially log-log,
analyses). Unfortunately, little if any of these data are available on the
Internet (as opposed to hundreds of webpages on simply how to measure tree
height), so Gary has a huge task and a good reason to do old-fashioned
library research in a forestry library or better still at Harvard Forest.

Re: Tree Measurement Bibliography
  Aug 06, 2003 04:21 PDT 

   Your idea has merit. The formal bibliography of scholarly papers would need
to be accompanied by an explanation of who the stake holders in tree measuring
past and present are, i.e. science, business, recreation (sport), and public
interest. Prior to ENTS in the East and Bob Van Pelt's group in the West, the
methods used to take simple dimensional measurements (as opposed to many other
kinds such as leaf area) have come via the business route mainly through the
forestry profession. The latter needed measurements to quickly compute trunk
volume and the methods adopted became canonical. Devices like clinometers were
invented and science accepted both the devices and techniques. Recreation
brought even simpler techniques to the measuring of tree height and crown
spread. Today, the stake holders are all mixed together and sorting it out has
become quite a challenge.

   A point that needs periodic emphasis is that with respect to simple
dimensional measurements, the business-science connection receives constant
reinforcement because of the dominance of the former. I think that is now in
the process of changing. Also, the last stake holder has only recently come on
the scene - the public interest. Some of us have deemed it in the public
interest to get the story out about forest icons that are under constant threat
of being misinterpreted to the public by the business stake holder. Places like
the GSMNP, Cook Forest, Zoar Valley, and MTSF are in constant danger of being
cast to the public as unhealthy forest in need of a good whacking. The public
interest enters the picture to provide more accurate descriptions of natural,
managed, and mis-managed forestscapes, past and present. Simple comparative,
but accurate, methods were needed and that spurred ENTS to develop the
techniques - which we have done.

   The measuring story will continue to revolve around the stake holders.
Science will ultimately do what it needs to do to answer questions of
scientific interest, but the answers will not necessarily be sufficient to
provide the public with all the views of the forest needed to satisfy human
value-oriented judgments. Then there is the historical dimension. Some of us
are compelled to want to distinguish historical fact from fiction. Charlie
Cogbill is of that ilk. He does it for the New England forestscape taken as a
whole. ENTS does it for individual tree species. Each focus has its place.

   In an interesting development, forester Mike Mauri of teh Forest Stewards
Guild has adopted ENTS measuring techniques to gain greater accuracy. I imagine
others will follow. We ARE having an impact. Lots to talk about here.    

Re: Tree Measurement Bibliography   Robert Leverett
  Aug 06, 2003 05:24 PDT 


   A few more thoughts on the bibliography and accompanying narrative.
The more I think about it, the better the idea sounds. Thanks to your
willingness to pick up the ball on the website, what Dr. Tom Diggins
labels as a significant braintrust can expand its visibility and

   Charlie opened Pandora's box when he challenged us to become more
aware of the abundance of good science that currently exists with
respect to forest measuring of all types. Other PhDs on our list are
familiar with many sources, but the general public isn't. The science
has been there, but its visibility has been low. An ENTS bibliography
could raise public awareness. We could do yeoman service and my HCC
partner Gary Beluzo is far more accomplished in literature searches than
I am. Whew! I like to talk about them. He likes to do them.

    Looking at such initiatives as this another way, ENTS would serve as
what we in the computer world label an "interface" - a computer system
that establishes communication between two other systems that don't
communicate with each other - for the purpose of exchanging data. ENTS
can be a heck of an interface between the enlightened part of the public
and forest science, pure and applied, as the latter relates to tree
species and special forested sites that are considered valuable for any
of several reasons, including big trees, old trees, rare species,
whatever. Hey, I think my head just grew three sizes. Better cut it off


Re: Tree Measurement Bibliography   Bruce Allen
  Aug 06, 2003 05:24 PDT 


The bibliography should start with:

Husch, B., C.I. Miller, and T.W. Beers. 1982. Forest Mensuration. John
Wiley & Sons, New York. 402 pg.


Bruce Allen
Research Coordinator
Wetlands Group
Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
Drawer E
Aiken, SC 29802

8192 Lakespring Court
West Chester, OH 45069
RE: Tree Measurement Bibliography   Lee E. Frelich
  Aug 06, 2003 06:15 PDT 

Bob, Ed, Gary et al.:

Below are a few of my favorite tree height and geographical tree variation


Becker, P. R.J. Gribben, and C.M. Lim. Tapered conduits can buffer
hydraulic conductance from path-length effects. Tree Physiology 20: 965-967.

Becker, P ., F.C. Meinzer, and S.D. Wullschleger. 2000. Hydraulic
limitation of tree height: a critique. Functional Ecology 14: 4-11.

Bond, B.J., and M.G. Ryan. 2000. Comment on 'Hydraulic limitation of tree
height: a critique', by Becker, Meinzer and Wullschleger. Functional
Ecology 14: 135-140.

Brown, H.G. and H. Lowenstein. 1978. Predicting site productivity of mixed
conifer stands in northern Idaho from soil and topographic variables. Soil
Science Society of America Journal 42: 967-971.

Brown, J.H. and Marquard, R.D. 1988. Site index of yellow poplar in
relation to soils and topography in the Allegheny Plateau of Ohio. Northern
Journal of Applied Forestry 5: 34-38.

Buchert, G.P., P. Rajora, J.V. Hood and B.P. Dancik. 1997. Effects of
harvesting on genetic diversity in old-growth eastern white pine in
Ontario, Canada. Conservation Biology 11: 747-758.

Carter, K.K. 1996. Provenance tests as indicators of growth response to
climate change in 10 north temperate tree species. Canadian Journal of
Forest Research 26: 1089-1095.

Davis, M.B. and R.G. Shaw. 2001. Range shifts and adaptive responses to
Quaternary climate change. Science 292: 673-679.

Geyer, W.A., R.D. Marquard, and J.F. Barber. 1980. Black walnut site
quality in relation to soil and topographic characteristics in northeastern
Kansas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 35: 135-137.

Huang, S.M. and S.J. Titus. 1993. An index of site productivity for
uneven-aged or mixed-species stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research
23: 558-562.

King, D.A. 1990. The adaptive significance of tree height. The American
Naturalist. 135: 809-828.

Li, P., J. Beaulieu, G. Dauost, and A. Plourde. 1997. Patterns of adaptive
genetic variation in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) from Quebec.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 199-206.

Martin, F.C. and J.W. Flewelling. 1998. Evaluation of tree height
prediction models for stand inventory. Western Journal of Applied forestry
13: 109-119.

Mc.Dowell, H.Barnard, B.J. Bond, T. Hinckley, R.M. Hubbard, H. Ishnii, B
Kostner, F. Magnani, J.D. Marshall, F.C. Meinzer, N. Phillips, M.G. Ryan,
and D. Whitehead. 2002. The relationship between tree height and leaf area:
sapwood area ratio. Oecologia 132: 12-20.

McNab, W.H. 1989. Terrain shape index: quantifying effect of minor landform
on tree height. Forest Science 35: 91-104.

Monserud, R.A. and G.E. Rehfeldt. 1990. Genetic and environmental
components of variation of site index in inland Douglas-fir. Forest Science
36: 1-9.

Munn, L.C., and J.P. Vimmerstedt. 1980. Predicting height growth of yellow
poplar from soils and topography in south-eastern Ohio. Soil Science
Society of America Journal 44: 384-387.

Oleksyn, J., and K. Przybyl. 1987. Oak decline in the Soviet Union--scale
and hypotheses. European Journal of Forest Pathology 17: 321-336.

Oleksyn, J. J. Modrzynski, M.G. Tjoelker, R. Zytkowiak, P.B. Reich, and P.
Karolewski. 1998a. Growth and physiology of Picea abies populations from
elevational transects: common garden evidence for altitudinal ecotypes and
cold adaptation. Functional Ecology 12: 573-590.

Oleksyn, J., M.G. Tjoelker, and P.B. Reich. 1998b. Adaptation to changing
environment in Scots pine populations across a latitudinal gradient. Silva
Fennica 32: 129-140.

Oleksyn, J., P.B. Reich, M.G. Yjoelker, and W. Chalulka. 2001. Biogegraphic
differences in shoot elongation pattern among European Scots pine
populations. Forest ECology and Management 148: 207-220.

Olesen, T. 2001. Architecture of a cool-temperate rain forest canopy.
Ecology 82: 2719-2730.

Osawa, A., M. Ishizuka, and Y. Kanazawa. 1991. A profile theory of tree
growth. Forest Ecology and Management 41: 33-63.

Rehfeldt, G.H., C.C. Ying, D.L. Spittlehouse, and D.A.
Hamilton. 1999.   Genetic responses to climate in Pinus contorta: niche
breadth, climate change, and reforestation. Ecological Monographs 69: 375-407.

Roboichaud, E. and I.R. Methven. 1993. The effect of site quality on the
timing of stand breakup,tree longevity, and the maximum attainable height
of black spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 1514-1519.

Stout, B.B. and D.L. Shumway. 1982. Site quality estimation using height
and diameter. Forest Science 28: 639-645.

Ryan, M.G. and B.J. Yoder. 1997. Hydraulic limits to tree height and tree
growth. BioScience 47: 235-242.

Vanclay, J.K. 1992. Assessing site productivity in tropical moist forests:
a review. Forest Ecology and Management 54: 257-287.

Wang, G.G. and K. Klinka. 1996. Use of synoptic variables in predicting
white spruce site index. Forest Ecology and Management 80: 95-105.

Wang, G.G., P.L Marshall, and K. Klinka. 1994. Height growth pattern of
white spruce in relation to site quality. Forest Ecology and Management 68:

Young, A.G., S.I. Warwick, and H.G. Merriam. 1993. Genetic structure at
three spatial scales for Acer saccharum (sugar maple) in Canada and the
implications for conservation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:
RE: Our Compulsion-Part II
  Aug 06, 2003 09:25 PDT 

I am not near computers very often during the field season, but have been scanning some of the conversations.

A paper we recently finished is being published later this year as a chapter in the new book on forest canopies. Our technique allows for the very accurate 3-dimensional mapping of virtually any tree. Total stem and branch volume is but one output from this technique. Total surface area is also possible which is important for trees with photosynthetic bark. Total foliage biomass and/or leaf area is also obtained, which is the first accurate assessment of large tree foliage biomass ever published.

Below are the title and abstract

Van Pelt, R., S.C. Sillett, and N.M. Nadkarni. 2003. Quantifying and Visualizing Canopy Structure in Tall Forests: Methods and a Case Study. Chapter in: Forest Canopies 2nd Edition. Academic Press.

We present a protocol for the three-dimensional (3-D) structural mapping of trees. Rope-based access makes the non-destructive techniques useful in nearly any forest, and a three-tiered approach insures that the 3-D information can be extrapolated to the entire forest stand. The approach involves the random establishment of linear plots (transects) in the chosen forest. A subset of trees is then selected for detailed, within-tree mapping. The trees are then climbed and systematically mapped using lasers, tapes, and compasses. Foliage biomass is estimated by counting foliar units. To test the robustness of the protocol, two tall but architecturally dissimilar forests were used as a case study: a 292 year-old Eucalyptus regnans forest near Melbourne, Australia, and a 650 year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii Tsuga heterophylla forest in Washington State, USA. Both forests contain individual trees exceeding 90 m in height and 300 cm in diameter. Every trunk, reiterated trun!
k, limb, and branch was measured on a total of 26 trees: 9 Eucalyptus regnans, 10 Pseudotsuga menziesii, 3 Thuja plicata, and 4 Tsuga heterophylla. We used data from these trees combined with detailed ground-based measurements to estimate stand-level totals of wood volume and foliage biomass. Basal area and wood volume were 186.6 and 133.2 m2/ha and 3,270 and 2,555 m3/ha for the Eucalyptus and Pseudotsuga stands, respectively. Foliage biomass was 10,660 kg/ha for the Eucalyptus stand, and 16,005 kg/ha for the Pseudotsuga stand. The protocol also permits accurate assessment of bark surface area and leaf area index as well as data conversion for 3-D visualization.

Re: white pine regeneration   Lee E. Frelich
  Jun 16, 2004 05:51 PDT 


The following paper was just published in the Finnish Journal Silva Fennica:

Weyenberg, Scott A., Lee E. Frelich and Peter B. Reich. 2004. Logging
versus fire: How does disturbance type influence the abundance of Pinus
strobus regeneration? Silva Fennica 38: 179-194.

I can send a pdf to anyone interested (about 450 KB).

Bob, you might remember Scott Weyenberg was one of my graduate assistants
who came to the meeting in Cook Forest during April 2003. This paper is
from his M.S. THesis.