Measurement Bibliography: Discussion
05, 2003 18:47 PDT
Charlie, Bob, and Lee
I would like to see a formal bibliography of scholarly papers
relevant to tree measuring published on the website as a
people interested in the field and interested in using out tree
data. It would certainly boost the scientific profile of our
legitimize what we are doing to a wider audience. It might spur
research or data uses by people outside our current
04, 2003 17:45 PDT
Bob, Ed, Gary, Larry, Lee, and other mensurationists,
If ENTS expressed compulsion is "to
measure very accurate(ly) tree
dimensions" then it is practicing the art of tree size
measurement or "tree
mensuration". No need to coin a new word for the exact job
the mensurationist. This well established applied field (with
addition of laser technology) overlaps the disciplines of
"tree dimensional analysis", "log scaling",
production (and productivity) estimation", as well as
The latter interest gives rise to the previously noted "dendromorphology",
which mostly applies to the study of the shape, more commonly
pattern , canopy form, and leaf array, rather than exclusively
the size of
the tree or its trunk. Note that each of these disciplines has a
technical literature (for a quick introduction see Greehill
"Determination of the greatest height consistent with
stability that a
vertical pole or mast can be made, and of the greatest height to
tree of given proportions can grow" in Proc Cambr. Philos.
Soc. IV Part II,
p. 65-73; Niklas's (1994, U Chicago Press) "Plant Allometry";
Brown's (1980, Springer-Verlag) "Trees structure and
Procs of the Inter. Union of Forest Research Orgs. (IUFRO)
for S4.01 Mensuration, Growth and Yield, "Working Party on
of the forest biomass"; or any number of studies on the
of eastern species [for example, Whittaker et al (1974) The
Ecosystem Study: forest biomass and production Ecol Monogr.
Fortunately the form of the various "models" of tree
dimensions is straight
forward (either deductions from simple geometric shapes or more
sampling with regression estimation) and most of the statistical
parameterization has already been done (with the exception of
which unduly influence the coefficients in regression,
analyses). Unfortunately, little if any of these data are
available on the
Internet (as opposed to hundreds of webpages on simply how to
height), so Gary has a huge task and a good reason to do
library research in a forestry library or better still at
Tree Measurement Bibliography
06, 2003 04:21 PDT
Your idea has merit. The formal bibliography
of scholarly papers would need
to be accompanied by an explanation of who the stake holders in
past and present are, i.e. science, business, recreation
(sport), and public
interest. Prior to ENTS in the East and Bob Van Pelt's group in
the West, the
methods used to take simple dimensional measurements (as opposed
to many other
kinds such as leaf area) have come via the business route mainly
forestry profession. The latter needed measurements to quickly
volume and the methods adopted became canonical. Devices like
invented and science accepted both the devices and techniques.
brought even simpler techniques to the measuring of tree height
spread. Today, the stake holders are all mixed together and
sorting it out has
become quite a challenge.
A point that needs periodic emphasis is that
with respect to simple
dimensional measurements, the business-science connection
reinforcement because of the dominance of the former. I think
that is now in
the process of changing. Also, the last stake holder has only
recently come on
the scene - the public interest. Some of us have deemed it in
interest to get the story out about forest icons that are under
of being misinterpreted to the public by the business stake
holder. Places like
the GSMNP, Cook Forest, Zoar Valley, and MTSF are in constant
danger of being
cast to the public as unhealthy forest in need of a good
whacking. The public
interest enters the picture to provide more accurate
descriptions of natural,
managed, and mis-managed forestscapes, past and present. Simple
but accurate, methods were needed and that spurred ENTS to
techniques - which we have done.
The measuring story will continue to revolve
around the stake holders.
Science will ultimately do what it needs to do to answer
scientific interest, but the answers will not necessarily be
provide the public with all the views of the forest needed to
value-oriented judgments. Then there is the historical
dimension. Some of us
are compelled to want to distinguish historical fact from
Cogbill is of that ilk. He does it for the New England
forestscape taken as a
whole. ENTS does it for individual tree species. Each focus has
In an interesting development, forester Mike
Mauri of teh Forest Stewards
Guild has adopted ENTS measuring techniques to gain greater
accuracy. I imagine
others will follow. We ARE having an impact. Lots to talk about
Tree Measurement Bibliography
06, 2003 05:24 PDT
A few more thoughts on the bibliography and
The more I think about it, the better the idea sounds. Thanks to
willingness to pick up the ball on the website, what Dr. Tom
labels as a significant braintrust can expand its visibility and
Charlie opened Pandora's box when he
challenged us to become more
aware of the abundance of good science that currently exists
respect to forest measuring of all types. Other PhDs on our list
familiar with many sources, but the general public isn't. The
has been there, but its visibility has been low. An ENTS
could raise public awareness. We could do yeoman service and my
partner Gary Beluzo is far more accomplished in literature
I am. Whew! I like to talk about them. He likes to do them.
Looking at such initiatives as this
another way, ENTS would serve as
what we in the computer world label an "interface" - a
that establishes communication between two other systems that
communicate with each other - for the purpose of exchanging
can be a heck of an interface between the enlightened part of
and forest science, pure and applied, as the latter relates to
species and special forested sites that are considered valuable
of several reasons, including big trees, old trees, rare
whatever. Hey, I think my head just grew three sizes. Better cut
Tree Measurement Bibliography
06, 2003 05:24 PDT
The bibliography should start with:
Husch, B., C.I. Miller, and T.W. Beers. 1982. Forest Mensuration.
Wiley & Sons, New York. 402 pg.
Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
Aiken, SC 29802
8192 Lakespring Court
West Chester, OH 45069
Tree Measurement Bibliography
06, 2003 06:15 PDT
Bob, Ed, Gary et al.:
Below are a few of my favorite tree height and geographical tree
Becker, P. R.J. Gribben, and C.M. Lim. Tapered conduits can
hydraulic conductance from path-length effects. Tree Physiology
Becker, P ., F.C. Meinzer, and S.D. Wullschleger. 2000.
limitation of tree height: a critique. Functional Ecology 14:
Bond, B.J., and M.G. Ryan. 2000. Comment on 'Hydraulic
limitation of tree
height: a critique', by Becker, Meinzer and Wullschleger.
Ecology 14: 135-140.
Brown, H.G. and H. Lowenstein. 1978. Predicting site
productivity of mixed
conifer stands in northern Idaho from soil and topographic
Science Society of America Journal 42: 967-971.
Brown, J.H. and Marquard, R.D. 1988. Site index of yellow poplar
relation to soils and topography in the Allegheny Plateau of
Journal of Applied Forestry 5: 34-38.
Buchert, G.P., P. Rajora, J.V. Hood and B.P. Dancik. 1997.
harvesting on genetic diversity in old-growth eastern white pine
Ontario, Canada. Conservation Biology 11: 747-758.
Carter, K.K. 1996. Provenance tests as indicators of growth
climate change in 10 north temperate tree species. Canadian
Forest Research 26: 1089-1095.
Davis, M.B. and R.G. Shaw. 2001. Range shifts and adaptive
Quaternary climate change. Science 292: 673-679.
Geyer, W.A., R.D. Marquard, and J.F. Barber. 1980. Black walnut
quality in relation to soil and topographic characteristics in
Kansas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 35: 135-137.
Huang, S.M. and S.J. Titus. 1993. An index of site productivity
uneven-aged or mixed-species stands. Canadian Journal of Forest
King, D.A. 1990. The adaptive significance of tree height. The
Naturalist. 135: 809-828.
Li, P., J. Beaulieu, G. Dauost, and A. Plourde. 1997. Patterns
genetic variation in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) from
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 199-206.
Martin, F.C. and J.W. Flewelling. 1998. Evaluation of tree
prediction models for stand inventory. Western Journal of
Mc.Dowell, H.Barnard, B.J. Bond, T. Hinckley, R.M. Hubbard, H.
Kostner, F. Magnani, J.D. Marshall, F.C. Meinzer, N. Phillips,
and D. Whitehead. 2002. The relationship between tree height and
sapwood area ratio. Oecologia 132: 12-20.
McNab, W.H. 1989. Terrain shape index: quantifying effect of
on tree height. Forest Science 35: 91-104.
Monserud, R.A. and G.E. Rehfeldt. 1990. Genetic and
components of variation of site index in inland Douglas-fir.
Munn, L.C., and J.P. Vimmerstedt. 1980. Predicting height growth
poplar from soils and topography in south-eastern Ohio. Soil
Society of America Journal 44: 384-387.
Oleksyn, J., and K. Przybyl. 1987. Oak decline in the Soviet
and hypotheses. European Journal of Forest Pathology 17:
Oleksyn, J. J. Modrzynski, M.G. Tjoelker, R. Zytkowiak, P.B.
Reich, and P.
Karolewski. 1998a. Growth and physiology of Picea abies
elevational transects: common garden evidence for altitudinal
cold adaptation. Functional Ecology 12: 573-590.
Oleksyn, J., M.G. Tjoelker, and P.B. Reich. 1998b. Adaptation to
environment in Scots pine populations across a latitudinal
Fennica 32: 129-140.
Oleksyn, J., P.B. Reich, M.G. Yjoelker, and W. Chalulka. 2001.
differences in shoot elongation pattern among European Scots
populations. Forest ECology and Management 148: 207-220.
Olesen, T. 2001. Architecture of a cool-temperate rain forest
Ecology 82: 2719-2730.
Osawa, A., M. Ishizuka, and Y. Kanazawa. 1991. A profile theory
growth. Forest Ecology and Management 41: 33-63.
Rehfeldt, G.H., C.C. Ying, D.L. Spittlehouse, and D.A.
Hamilton. 1999. Genetic responses to climate in
Pinus contorta: niche
breadth, climate change, and reforestation. Ecological
Monographs 69: 375-407.
Roboichaud, E. and I.R. Methven. 1993. The effect of site
quality on the
timing of stand breakup,tree longevity, and the maximum
of black spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:
Stout, B.B. and D.L. Shumway. 1982. Site quality estimation
and diameter. Forest Science 28: 639-645.
Ryan, M.G. and B.J. Yoder. 1997. Hydraulic limits to tree height
growth. BioScience 47: 235-242.
Vanclay, J.K. 1992. Assessing site productivity in tropical
a review. Forest Ecology and Management 54: 257-287.
Wang, G.G. and K. Klinka. 1996. Use of synoptic variables in
white spruce site index. Forest Ecology and Management 80:
Wang, G.G., P.L Marshall, and K. Klinka. 1994. Height growth
white spruce in relation to site quality. Forest Ecology and
Young, A.G., S.I. Warwick, and H.G. Merriam. 1993. Genetic
three spatial scales for Acer saccharum (sugar maple) in Canada
implications for conservation. Canadian Journal of Forest
Our Compulsion-Part II
06, 2003 09:25 PDT
I am not near computers very often during the field season, but
have been scanning some of the conversations.
A paper we recently finished is being published later this year
as a chapter in the new book on forest canopies. Our technique
allows for the very accurate 3-dimensional mapping of virtually
any tree. Total stem and branch volume is but one output from
this technique. Total surface area is also possible which is
important for trees with photosynthetic bark. Total foliage
biomass and/or leaf area is also obtained, which is the first
accurate assessment of large tree foliage biomass ever
Below are the title and abstract
Van Pelt, R., S.C. Sillett, and N.M. Nadkarni. 2003. Quantifying
and Visualizing Canopy Structure in Tall Forests: Methods and a
Case Study. Chapter in: Forest Canopies 2nd Edition. Academic
We present a protocol for the three-dimensional (3-D) structural
mapping of trees. Rope-based access makes the non-destructive
techniques useful in nearly any forest, and a three-tiered
approach insures that the 3-D information can be extrapolated to
the entire forest stand. The approach involves the random
establishment of linear plots (transects) in the chosen forest.
A subset of trees is then selected for detailed, within-tree
mapping. The trees are then climbed and systematically mapped
using lasers, tapes, and compasses. Foliage biomass is estimated
by counting foliar units. To test the robustness of
the protocol, two tall but architecturally dissimilar forests
were used as a case study: a 292 year-old Eucalyptus regnans
forest near Melbourne, Australia, and a 650 year-old Pseudotsuga
menziesii Tsuga heterophylla forest in Washington State,
USA. Both forests contain individual trees exceeding 90 m in
height and 300 cm in diameter. Every trunk, reiterated trun!
k, limb, and branch was measured on a total of 26 trees: 9
Eucalyptus regnans, 10 Pseudotsuga menziesii, 3 Thuja plicata,
and 4 Tsuga heterophylla. We used data from these trees combined
with detailed ground-based measurements to estimate stand-level
totals of wood volume and foliage biomass. Basal area and wood
volume were 186.6 and 133.2 m2/ha and 3,270 and 2,555 m3/ha for
the Eucalyptus and Pseudotsuga stands, respectively. Foliage
biomass was 10,660 kg/ha for the Eucalyptus stand, and 16,005
kg/ha for the Pseudotsuga stand. The protocol also permits
accurate assessment of bark surface area and leaf area index as
well as data conversion for 3-D visualization.
white pine regeneration
16, 2004 05:51 PDT
The following paper was just published in the Finnish Journal
Weyenberg, Scott A., Lee E. Frelich and Peter B. Reich. 2004.
versus fire: How does disturbance type influence the abundance
strobus regeneration? Silva Fennica 38: 179-194.
I can send a pdf to anyone interested (about 450 KB).
Bob, you might remember Scott Weyenberg was one of my graduate
who came to the meeting in Cook Forest during April 2003. This
from his M.S. THesis.